J Korean Med Sci.  2020 Nov;35(44):e364. 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e364.

Renal Syndromic Hearing Loss Is Common in Childhood-onset Chronic Kidney Disease

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea
  • 2Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
  • 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 5Department of Emergency Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 6Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 7Kidney Research Institute, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 8Wide River Institute of Immunology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea


Hearing loss (HL) in children may adversely affect their development. HL is more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) than in the general population. This study evaluated the prevalence of HL and its underlying diseases in patients with childhood-onset in CKD.
In this retrospective study of a tertiary referral center, childhood-onset CKD patients (stage 2–5, age at onset of renal symptom < 18 years) were recruited. We referred to the “renal” syndromic HL as cases with genetic or syndromic diseases, or extra-renal anomalies in addition to HL and CKD.
A total of 421 patients (male:female = 279:142) were reviewed according to the causes of CKD: congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT; n = 184, 43.7%), glomerulopathies (GP; n = 105, 24.9%), cystic kidney diseases (CYST; n = 39, 9.3%), perinatal problems (PP; n = 29, 6.9%), and others (n = 64, 15.2%). HL was detected in 82 (19.5%) patients, including 51 (12.1%) patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), 30 (7.1%) with conductive hearing loss (CHL), and 1 patient with mixed HL. The prevalence of HL in each group was as follows: 16.8% in the CAKUT group, 28.6% in the GP group, 12.8% in the CYST group, 24.1% in the PP group, and 14.1% in the others group. HL was more common in higher CKD stages, especially CHL in end-stage renal disease. SNHL was more prevalent in CKD from GP. Of the 82 patients with HL, 50% had renal syndromic HL: 58.8% of SNHL and one-third of CHL were renal syndromic HL.
One-fifth of the childhood-onset CKD had HL. Collectively, renal syndromic HL comprised half of the HL in this study. To improve the quality of life in patients with childhood-onset CKD, we suggest that HL should be considered, requiring surveillance, and if necessary, early intervention.


Hearing Loss; Chronic Kidney Disease; Children; Syndromic Hearing Loss
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