Psychiatry Investig.  2020 Sep;17(9):880-888. 10.30773/pi.2019.0326.

Anger-Related Characteristics According to Chronotypes in Bipolar or Depressive Disorders

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Seoul Metropolitan Eunpyung Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  • 2Department of Psychiatry, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Republic of Korea
  • 3Department of Psychiatry, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Republic of Korea
  • 4Department of Applied Mathematics, Pukyung National University, Busan, Republic of Korea


Though anger was highly associated with eveningness in general population, there is no study on the relationship between chronotype and anger-related characteristics in bipolar or depressive disorders. This study aimed to investigate the difference of anger-related characteristics according to chronotypes in bipolar or depressive disorders.
Patients with bipolar or depressive disorders (n=238) were included in this study. Their chronotypes and anger-related characteristics were assessed with a self-evaluation of the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) and the Anger Coping Scale (ACS).
The eveningness group in patients with mood disorders showed the highest scores of anger-trait (p<0.001), anger-expression (p=0.002) and anger-in (p<0.001) in STAXI subscales, verbal aggression (p=0.010) in ACS subscales among three groups, but the morningess group showed the lowest scores of these subscales among three groups. However, there were no significant differences in all subscales of the STAXI and ACS according to diagnostic subtypes in the Friedman test.
The results of this study suggested that eveningness in patients with mood disorders might be related to anger proneness and maladaptive anger coping. To manage anger emotion in the patients with mood disorders, therapeutic interventions to modulate eveningness might be helpful.


Chronotype, Anger, Coping, Bipolar disorder, Depressive disorder
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