J Korean Ophthalmol Soc.  2020 Jul;61(7):765-771. 10.3341/jkos.2020.61.7.765.

Fusion and Suppression in Patients with Unilateral Idiopathic Epiretinal Membrane

  • 1Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Retinal Degeneration Research Lab, Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Ophthalmology, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan, Korea
  • 4Department of Ophthalmology, Veterans Health Service Medical Center, Seoul, Korea


To investigate the presence of fusion and suppression in patients with unilateral idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM).
Thirty-five patients with unilateral idiopathic ERM received a full ophthalmologic exam including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Patients were divided into suppression and non-suppression groups according to the results of 4 Prism Dioptre Base-out Test and Worth 4 Dot test. Age, symptoms, duration of ERM, BCVA, average M-chart score, results of Titmus test and optical coherence tomography parameters were compared between the two groups. Factors associated with suppression were also evaluated.
Eleven (31%) of 35 patients had suppression. The BCVA (0.18 ± 0.12 vs. 0.29 ± 0.12 p = 0.019) and stereopsis (2.25 ± 0.27 vs. 2.66 ± 0.62, p = 0.009) were significantly lower in the suppression group than the non-suppression group. Median age was older (63.21 ± 9.64 vs. 70.82 ± 6.80, p = 0.013) and duration of ERM (7.86 ± 3.69 vs. 18.54 ± 14.92 months, p = 0.004) was longer in the suppression group than the non-suppression group. Average M-chart score was higher in the suppression group. However, not all the patients suffered from metamorphopsia, including the suppression group when using binocular vision.
Unilateral suppression is common in unilateral idiopathic ERM and influences the patient’s stereopsis. Suppression was significantly correlated with age, duration of symptoms and metamorphopsia.


Epiretinal membrane; Metamorphopsia; Suppression; Sensory fusion; Stereopsis
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