J Periodontal Implant Sci.  2020 Jun;50(3):146-158. 10.5051/jpis.2020.50.3.146.

Correlation analysis of gingival recession after orthodontic treatment in the anterior region: an evaluation of soft and hard tissues

  • 1Department of Periodontology, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Periodontology and Prosthodontics, Graduate School of Clinical Dentistry, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Orthodontics, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea
  • 4Department of Periodontology, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea


The aim of this study was to investigate and identify the main causes of periodontal tissue change associated with labial gingival recession by examining the anterior region of patients who underwent orthodontic treatment.
In total, 45 patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment from January 2010 to December 2015 were included. Before and after the orthodontic treatment, sectioned images from 3-dimensional digital model scanning and cone-beam computed tomography images in the same region were superimposed to measure periodontal parameters. The initial labial gingival thickness (IGT) and the initial labial alveolar bone thickness (IBT) were measured at 4 mm below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), and the change of the labial gingival margin was defined as the change of the distance from the CEJ to the gingival margin. Additionally, the jaw, tooth position, tooth inclination, tooth rotation, and history of orthognathic surgery were investigated to determine the various factors that could have affected anterior periodontal tissue changes.
The mean IGT and IBT were 0.77±0.29 mm and 0.77±0.32 mm, respectively. The mean gingival recession was 0.14±0.57 mm. Tooth inclination had a significant association with gingival recession, and as tooth inclination increased labially, gingival recession increased by approximately 0.2 mm per 1°.
In conclusion, the IGT, IBT, tooth position, tooth rotation, and history of orthognathic surgery did not affect labial gingival recession. However, tooth inclination showed a significant association with labial gingival recession of the anterior teeth after orthodontic treatment.


Alveolar ridge; Bone; Gingiva; Gingival recession; Incisor; Orthodontic tooth movement
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