J Menopausal Med.  2020 Apr;26(1):24-28. 10.6118/jmm.19201.

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Urinary/Anal Incontinence and Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Healthy Middle-Aged Iranian Women

  • 1Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Science
  • 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Science
  • 3Women's Reproductive Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  • 4School of Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Midwifery, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran


Urinary incontinence (UI) and anal incontinence (AI) cause concern, social exclusion, and ultimately reduced quality of life in women. The aim of present study was to assess the prevalence and related risk factors of UI, AI, and pelvic organ prolapse (POP).
The present study recruited 340 menopausal women living in Tabriz in northwest Iran. The data collection tools included the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 and a personal and social information questionnaire. POP was diagnosed via clinical examination using the simplified pelvic organ prolapse quantification system.
The prevalence of UI and POP was approximately 50%, and approximately 16% of participants reported AI. Based on the odds ratios, the most remarkable risk factor of urinary stress incontinence was the number of vaginal deliveries, whereas that of urinary urge incontinence was obesity. Episiotomy and age were the most major risk factors of AI and POP, respectively.
The results of the present study showed that the prevalence of POP, UI, and AI is remarkably high among postmenopausal women, warranting the need to prioritize the assessment of POP and various incontinences in middle-aged women in the primary health care system. Furthermore, increased emphasis should be put on modifiable risk factors.


Fecal incontinence; Pelvic organ prolapse; Postmenopause; Urinary incontinence
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