Yonsei Med J.  2020 Mar;61(3):251-256. 10.3349/ymj.2020.61.3.251.

Validation of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index Short Form (WOMAC-SF) and Its Relevance to Disability and Frailty

  • 1Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine and Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea. parkks@gnu.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju, Korea. furim@daum.net
  • 3Center for Farmer's Safety and Health, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju, Korea.


This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index Short Form (WOMAC-SF) for the assessment of musculoskeletal disorders. We evaluated whether WOMAC-SF correlated with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 12 (WHODAS-12) and Kaigo-Yobo questionnaires for assessing health-outcomes in Korea.
This cross-sectional study used data from the Namgaram-2 cohort. WOMAC, WOMAC-SF, WHODAS-12, and Kaigo-Yobo questionnaires were administered to patients with musculoskeletal disorders, including radiology-confirmed knee osteoarthritis (RKOA), sarcopenia, and osteoporosis. The relationships among WOMAC-SF, WHODAS-12, and Kaigo-Yobo scores were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis.
WOMAC-SF was associated with the WOMAC questionnaire. The results of confirmatory factor analysis for the hypothesized model with two latent factors, pain and function, provided satisfactory fit indices. WOMAC-SF pain and function were associated with RKOA. Kaigo-Yobo was associated with WOMAC-SF pain (B=0.140, p=0.001) and WOMAC-SF function (B=0.042, p=0.004). WHODAS-12 was associated with WOMAC-SF pain (B=0.679, p=0.003) and WOMAC-SF function (B=0.804, p<0.001).
WOMAC-SF was validated for the evaluation of low extremity musculoskeletal disorders and health-related quality of life in a community-based population. Furthermore, we confirmed that WOMAC-SF were reflective of disability and frailty, which affect health outcomes.


WOMAC; musculoskeletal disorders; disability; frailty

MeSH Terms

Appointments and Schedules
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Osteoarthritis, Knee
Quality of Life
World Health Organization


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