Int J Thyroidol.  2019 Nov;12(2):97-104. 10.11106/ijt.2019.12.2.97.

Cancer Immunotherapy Related Endocrine Adverse Effects

  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.


Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a promising therapy for a wide variety of tumors. Immune checkpoint inhibitors including anti cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibodies have proven to be especially effective in various advanced cancers. However, cancer the immunotherapy disturbs the immune system and may also cause immune related side effects (IRAE) distinguished from cytotoxic chemotherapy toxicity. Among them, endocrine IRAE has been reported with a higher incidence than other organ IRAE. We focus on the most relevant and new aspects related to endocrine IRAE due to cancer immunotherapy in this review.


Programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1); Programmed cell death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1); Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4; Immune related adverse effect (IRAE)
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