J Vet Sci.  2019 Sep;20(5):e51. 10.4142/jvs.2019.20.e51.

Electromagnetic tracking-based ultrasound/computed tomography fusion imaging in dogs: preliminary application to ocular and periocular regions

  • 1Department of Veterinary Medical Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine and BK21 Plus Project Team, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea. imsono@chonnam.ac.kr


In ultrasound/computed tomography (CT) fusion images, ultrasound allows visualization of the target in real time. CT provides a navigation for ultrasound scanning and improves the overview in areas of limited visualization with ultrasound. This study was performed to investigate the feasibility of ultrasound/CT fusion based on an electromagnetic tracking technique using external fiducial markers for canine ocular and periocular regions. In 7 Beagle dogs, contrast-enhanced CT images of the head were obtained with placing external fiducial markers over the frontal region and both sides of the forepaws of the dog. Ultrasonography was performed under a magnetic field by installing a position sensor in the linear probe, without changing the dog's position. The positions of the external fiducial markers were adjusted and matched, based on the CT images. The execution time of co-registration and the distance between the regions of interest and the co-registration points, the frontal bone, cornea, retina, and optic nerve, were estimated. Approximately 60% of external fiducial markers were properly recognized in all dogs. After adjustment, all external fiducial markers were precisely matched. The co-registration execution time was less than 1 min. The distances between the regions of interest and co-registration points were less than 3 mm in all dogs. The electromagnetic tracking technique using external fiducial markers was a simple and applicable method for fusion imaging of a canine head using real-time ultrasonography and CT. This technique can be useful for interventional procedures of retrobulbar and periorbital lesions.


Co-registration; electromagnetic tracking technique; external fiducial markers; ocular and periocular; ultrasound/CT fusion

MeSH Terms

Fiducial Markers
Frontal Bone
Magnetic Fields
Optic Nerve
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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