Saf Health Work.  2019 Jun;10(2):237-244. 10.1016/j.shaw.2019.01.005.

Exposure to Atmospheric Particulates and Associated Respirable Deposition Dose to Street Vendors at the Residential and Commercial Sites in Dehradun City

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Environmental Science and Natural Resources, Environmental Pollution Assessment Laboratory, School of Environment and Natural Resources, Doon University, Dehradun, India. vs@doonuniversity.ac.in
  • 2Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Street vendors spend relatively more time near roadways and are vulnerable to air pollution related health disorders. However, there is limited information on the quality of the air they breathe. The objectives of this present study were to calculate the mass concentration of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in eight size fractions (PM0.4–0.7, PM0.7–1.1, PM1.1–2.1, PM2.1–3.3, PM3.3–4.7, PM4.7–5.8, PM5.8–9.0, and PM9.0-–0µm) at commercial (CML) and residential site (RSL) in Dehradun city from November 2015 to May 2016. To estimate the corresponding respiratory deposition dose (RDDs) in alveolar (AL), tracheobronchial (TB), and head airway (HD) region on street vendors working at CML and RSL. To find the association of atmospheric PM with RDDs and the incidence of respiratory related disorders among street vendors.
METHODS
Andersen cascade impactor was employed for calculating the PM mass concentration. Questionnaire based health survey among street vendors were carried out through personal interview.
RESULTS
A significant difference (p < 0.05; t-test) between the mean PM0.4–10µm mass concentration at CML and RSL was observed with (mean±SD) 84.05±14.5 and 77.23±11.7 µgm−3, respectively. RDDs in AL, TB and HD region at CML was observed to be 9.9, 7.8, and 7.3% higher than at RSL, respectively. Health survey revealed 1.62, 0.96, 0.04, and 0.57 times higher incidence of cold, cough, breathlessness, and chest pain, respectively with street vendors at CML compared to RSL.
CONCLUSION
The site characteristics plays a major role in the respiratory health status of street vendors at Dehradun.

Keyword

Alveolar; Deposition dose; Particulate matter; Street vendors
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