Arch Plast Surg.  2017 Jan;44(1):26-33. 10.5999/aps.2017.44.1.26.

Correlation between the 2-Dimensional Extent of Orbital Defects and the 3-Dimensional Volume of Herniated Orbital Content in Patients with Isolated Orbital Wall Fractures

  • 1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Konyang University Hospital, University of Konyang College of Medicine, Myunggok Medical Research Center, Daejeon, Korea.
  • 2Biomedical Engineering, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.


The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between the 2-dimensional (2D) extent of orbital defects and the 3-dimensional (3D) volume of herniated orbital content in patients with an orbital wall fracture.
This retrospective study was based on the medical records and radiologic data of 60 patients from January 2014 to June 2016 for a unilateral isolated orbital wall fracture. They were classified into 2 groups depending on whether the fracture involved the inferior wall (group I, n=30) or the medial wall (group M, n=30). The 2D area of the orbital defect was calculated using the conventional formula. The 2D extent of the orbital defect and the 3D volume of herniated orbital content were measured with 3D image processing software. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the correlations between the 2D and 3D parameters.
Varying degrees of positive correlation were found between the 2D extent of the orbital defects and the 3D herniated orbital volume in both groups (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.568−0.788; R²=32.2%−62.1%).
Both the calculated and measured 2D extent of the orbital defects showed a positive correlation with the 3D herniated orbital volume in orbital wall fractures. However, a relatively large volume of herniation (>0.9 cm³) occurred not infrequently despite the presence of a small orbital defect (<1.9 cm²). Therefore, estimating the 3D volume of the herniated content in addition to the 2D orbital defect would be helpful for determining whether surgery is indicated and ensuring adequate surgical outcomes.


Imaging, three-dimensional; Orbital fractures; Orbit
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