Clin Endosc.  2018 Jan;51(1):13-18. 10.5946/ce.2017.165.

Current Status of Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy

Affiliations
  • 1Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Eulji University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. shkim@eulji.ac.kr

Abstract

Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic Heller myotomy, and hypertensive motor disorders such as diffuse esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus. Contraindications include prior radiation therapy to the esophagus and prior extensive esophageal mucosal resection/ablation involving the POEM field. Most of the complications are minor and self-limited and can be managed conservatively. As POEM emerged as the main treatment for achalasia, various adaptations to tunnel endoscopic surgery have been attempted. Tunnel endoscopic surgery includes POEM, peroral endoscopic tumor resection, gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy. POEM has been widely accepted as a treatment for all types of achalasia, even for specific cases such as achalasia with failed prior treatments, and hypertensive motor disorders.

Keyword

Peroral endoscopic myotomy; Achalasia; Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery; Heller myotomy
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