Child Kidney Dis.  2017 Oct;21(2):53-60. 10.3339/jkspn.2017.21.2.53.

Clinical Approach to Children with Proteinuria

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.
  • 2Department of Pediatrics, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.


Proteinuria is common in pediatric and adolescent patients. Proteinuria is defined as urinary protein excretion at levels higher than 100-150 mg/m²/day in children. It can be indicative of normal or benign conditions as well as numerous types of severe underlying renal or systemic disease. The school urine screening program has been conducted in Korea since 1998. Since then, numerous patients with normal or benign proteinuria as well as early stage renal diseases have been referred to the hospital. Benign proteinuria includes orthostatic proteinuria and transient proteinuria. Most causes of proteinuria can be categorized into 3 types: 1) overflow, 2) tubular, and 3) glomerular. Although treatment should be directed at the underlying cause of the proteinuria, prompt evaluation, diagnosis, and long-term monitoring of these pediatric patients can prevent potential progression of the underlying disease process. This article provides an overview of proteinuria: its causes, methods of assessment, and algorithmic suggestions to differentiate benign from pathologic renal disease.


Proteinuria; Children; Renal disease; School urine screening
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