Psychiatry Investig.  2017 Jul;14(4):413-419. 10.4306/pi.2017.14.4.413.

Validation of the Korean Version of the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms

  • 1Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, Republic of Korea.
  • 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University College of Medicine and Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan, Republic of Korea.
  • 3Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • 4Department of Psychiatry, Hallym University College of Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • 5Department of Rehabilitation Psychology, Daegu University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
  • 6Department of Psychiatry, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Republic of Korea.
  • 7Department of Psychiatry, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Republic of Korea.


Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) has recently been developed to improve measurement of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. We performed a multi-center study to validate the Korean version of the CAINS (CAINS-K) and explore potential cultural variation.
One hundred eighty schizophrenia patients diverse in demographic and illness profile were recruited from four centers in Korea. Along with the CAINS-K, the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), a self-report measure of behavioral inhibition and activation (BIS/BAS) and neurocognitive tasks were administered to verify external validities.
The CAINS-K showed high internal-consistency (0.92) and inter-rater reliability (0.77). Exploratory Factor Analysis replicated a two-factor structure of the original scale including motivation/pleasure and expression deficits dimensions. Korean patients tended to report lower pleasure compared to American patients in the prior study. The CAINS-K showed an adequate convergent validity with the SANS, negative symptoms of the BPRS, and BAS. A divergent validity was supported as the CAINS-K showed zero or only weak correlations with other symptoms of the BPRS, depression from the CDSS, and neurocognitive tasks.
The CAINS-K demonstrated high internal consistency and adequate external validities, and is expected to promote studies on negative symptoms in Korean patients with schizophrenia.


Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms; Negative symptoms; schizophrenia; Validity; Measurement
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