Ann Rehabil Med.  2016 Oct;40(5):845-850. 10.5535/arm.2016.40.5.845.

Effects of Plantar Flexor Muscle Static Stretching Alone and Combined With Massage on Postural Balance

  • 1Department of Physiotherapy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.


To evaluate and compare the effects of stretching and combined therapy (stretching and massage) on postural balance in people aged 50 to 65 years.
Twenty-three subjects participated in this nonrandomized clinical trial study. Each participant randomly received plantar flexor muscle stretching (3 cycles of 45 seconds with a 30-second recovery period between cycles) alone and in combination with deep stroking massage (an interval of at least 30 minutes separated the two interventions). The data were recorded with a force platform immediately after each condition with eyes open and closed. The center of pressure displacement and velocity along the mediolateral and anteroposterior axes were calculated under each condition. The data were analyzed with multiple-pair t-tests.
The center of pressure displacement and velocity along the mediolateral axis increased after both stretching and the combined intervention. There were significant differences in both values between participants in the stretching and combined interventions (p<0.05).
Plantar flexor muscle stretching (for 45 seconds) combined with deep stroking massage may have more detrimental effects on postural balance than stretching alone because each intervention can intensify the effects of the other.


Postural balance; Muscle stretching exercises; Massage

MeSH Terms

Muscle Stretching Exercises*
Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Postural Balance*


  • Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the device and position used for the stretching.


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