Ultrasonography.  2015 Jul;34(3):183-194. 10.14366/usg.15010.

Ultrasonography of intrauterine devices

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Radiology, UMass Memorial Medical Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA. kimy@ummhc.org
  • 2Newton Wellesley Radiology Associates, Newton Wellesley Hospital, Newton, MA, USA.

Abstract

The intrauterine device (IUD) is gaining popularity as a reversible form of contraception. Ultrasonography serves as first-line imaging for the evaluation of IUD position in patients with pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, or absent retrieval strings. This review highlights the imaging of both properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs. The problems associated with malpositioned IUDs include expulsion, displacement, embedment, and perforation. Management considerations depend on the severity of the malposition and the presence or absence of symptoms. Three-dimensional ultrasonography has proven to be more sensitive in the evaluation of more subtle findings of malposition, particularly side-arm embedment. Familiarity with the ultrasonographic features of properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs is essential.

Keyword

Intrauterine devices; Contraceptive devices, female; Ultrasonography

MeSH Terms

Contraception
Contraceptive Devices, Female
Hemorrhage
Humans
Intrauterine Devices*
Pelvic Pain
Recognition (Psychology)
Ultrasonography*
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