Environ Health Toxicol.  2012 ;27(1):e2012005.

Health Risk Assessment of Lead Ingestion Exposure by Particle Sizes in Crumb Rubber on Artificial Turf Considering Bioavailability

Affiliations
  • 1Institute for Environmental Research, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea. envlim@yuhs.ac
  • 2Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract


OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of ingestion exposure of lead by particle sizes of crumb rubber in artificial turf filling material with consideration of bioavailability.
METHODS
This study estimated the ingestion exposure by particle sizes (more than 250 um or less than 250 um) focusing on recyclable ethylene propylene diene monomer crumb rubber being used as artificial turf filling. Analysis on crumb rubber was conducted using body ingestion exposure estimate method in which total content test method, acid extraction method and digestion extraction method are reflected. Bioavailability which is a calibrating factor was reflected in ingestion exposure estimate method and applied in exposure assessment and risk assessment. Two methods using acid extraction and digestion extraction concentration were compared and evaluated.
RESULTS
As a result of the ingestion exposure of crumb rubber material, the average lead exposure amount to the digestion extraction result among crumb rubber was calculated to be 1.56x10(-4) mg/kg-day for low grade elementary school students and 4.87x10(-5) mg/kg-day for middle and high school students in 250 um or less particle size, and that to the acid extraction result was higher than the digestion extraction result. Results of digestion extraction and acid extraction showed that the hazard quotient was estimated by about over 2 times more in particle size of lower than 250 um than in higher than 250 um. There was a case of an elementary school student in which the hazard quotient exceeded 0.1.
CONCLUSIONS
Results of this study confirm that the exposure of lead ingestion and risk level increases as the particle size of crumb rubber gets smaller.

Keyword

Artificial turf; Bioavailability; Crumb rubber; Exposure assessment; Lead
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