Psychiatry Investig.  2011 Dec;8(4):354-361.

Multistrategic Memory Training with the Metamemory Concept in Healthy Older Adults

  • 1Yongmoon Graduate School of Counseling Psychology, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
  • 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.


According to the increase of older people, the need for effective methods to maintain or improve cognitive functions in the elderly has increased. These cognitive enhancing methods may contribute to the prevention of elderly cognitive decline by aging and dementing illness as well. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of multistrategic memory training with the metamemory concept on cognitive functions in the normal health elderly in Korea.
The program used in this study was developed by psychiatrists and psychologists in accordance with Korean situations. We applied the training program to the community-dwelling elderly with subjective memory complaints. Twenty participants were randomly received the intervention with 20 non-treatment controls. This program consisted of 10 sessions and was administered once a week. We examined the effects of this memory training for verbal memory, visuospatial memory, working memory, and verbal fluency ability by repeated ANOVA.
There were significant improvements in Word List Short-term Delayed Free and Cued Recall, Word list Long-term Delayed Free and Cued Recall and visuospatial recognition memory. Performance improvements in visuospatial span forwards and the Categorical Fluency Test were also significant. These improvements were still significant after adjusting for depression improvement exact categorical fluency.
This study shows that multistrategic memory training with the metamemory concept may improve memory ability and other cognitive functions which are not trained and that these improvements may be achieved by pure cognitive training effects.


Memory training; Subjective memory complaints; Metamemory; Cognitive aging
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