Korean Diabetes J.  2009 Dec;33(6):518-525. 10.4093/kdj.2009.33.6.518.

Effect of Diabetes Education Program on Glycemic Control and Self Management for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. sangah@catholic.ac.kr


Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease requiring continuous treatment and vigorous self-management. Reinforcement of effective self management and diabetes education are important factors in successful treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the current diabetes education program on blood glucose control, self-management, and self-efficacy of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 592 patients with newly diagnosed or uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited to the diabetes education program from January to December 2007. We surveyed 338 patients from April to July 2008. A total of 117 patients had biochemical examinations and completed a questionnaire about knowledge, self-management and self-efficacy of diabetes treatment (no education group (n = 23), education group (n = 94)). RESULTS: The total scores from the questionnaires and the results of laboratory data showed no differences between the two groups. However, there were significant reductions in hemoglobin A1c level in the education group, as compared with the no education group (P = 0.039). Although the score for knowledge about diabetes mellitus was significantly higher in the education group (P = 0.005), greater knowledge was not reflected in the self-management or self-efficacy of the patients. CONCLUSION: The current diabetes education program had no effect on the self-management or self-efficacy of patients with diabetes, although did show some degree of association with blood glucose control and diabetes knowledge level. We conclude that a more effective diabetes education program needs to be developed and applied to daily practice for the improvement ofself-efficacy in patients with diabetes mellitus.


Diabetes mellitus; Education; Self care; Self efficacy

MeSH Terms

Blood Glucose
Chronic Disease
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Reinforcement (Psychology)
Self Care
Self Efficacy
Surveys and Questionnaires
Blood Glucose

Cited by  12 articles

Effects of an Intensive Management Program for Diabetic Patients on a Blood Biochemical Profile and Diabetes Knowledge
Su-Jeong Yeo, Bok-Hee Kim
Korean J Community Nutr. 2018;23(2):148-161.    doi: 10.5720/kjcn.2018.23.2.148.

The Role of Medical Social Worker Engaging in Diabetes Management
Ga-Young Choi
J Korean Diabetes. 2019;20(4):251-254.    doi: 10.4093/jkd.2019.20.4.251.

Effects of Health Literacy and Knowledge on Diabetic Self-care in the Elderly with DM Living Alone
Nan Hui Kim, Youngran Yang, Myung Ha Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2016;27(4):370-379.    doi: 10.12799/jkachn.2016.27.4.370.

Study on Survey of Knowledge and Awareness Level of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Results from Seoul Metro-City Diabetes Prevention Program Survey
Dae Woong Lee, Chul Young Park, Su Jeong Song
J Korean Ophthalmol Soc. 2011;52(11):1296-1301.    doi: 10.3341/jkos.2011.52.11.1296.

Physician-Directed Diabetes Education without a Medication Change and Associated Patient Outcomes
Hun-Sung Kim, Hyunah Kim, Hae-Kyung Yang, Eun Young Lee, Yoo Jin Jeong, Tong Min Kim, So Jung Yang, Seo Yeon Baik, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jae Hyoung Cho, In Young Choi, Hyeon Woo Yim, Bong-Yun Cha
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(3):187-194.    doi: 10.4093/dmj.2017.41.3.187.

Role of Diabetes Educators and Effectiveness of Diabetes Education
HeeSook Kim
J Korean Diabetes. 2013;14(4):194-198.    doi: 10.4093/jkd.2013.14.4.194.

Role of Diabetes Educators and Effectiveness of Diabetes Education
HeeSook Kim
J Korean Diabetes. 2013;14(4):194-198.    doi: 10.4093/jkd.2013.14.4.194.

Diabetes Education Compliance and Knowledge among Diabetes Patients: Analysis of Patients Who Refuse Diabetes Education at an Academic Medical Center
Kang Hee Sim, Bo Ram Wang, Jin-Won Noh, Moon Kyu Lee, Young Dae Kwon
J Korean Diabetes. 2014;15(1):51-56.    doi: 10.4093/jkd.2014.15.1.51.

Research Review: Effective of Self-Management Education in Diabetes Patients
Eun Chong Shin
J Korean Diabetes. 2016;17(3):185-189.    doi: 10.4093/jkd.2016.17.3.185.

The Current Strategic Direction of Diabetes Education: American Association of Diabetes Educators Yearly Strategic Plan 2016∼2018
Yu Jeong Park
J Korean Diabetes. 2016;17(3):196-201.    doi: 10.4093/jkd.2016.17.3.196.

Understanding and Approaching Low Motivation in Young Adults with Diabetes Mellitus
Yu Jeong Park
J Korean Diabetes. 2017;18(2):121-124.    doi: 10.4093/jkd.2017.18.2.121.

Health Literacy, Diabetic Knowledge, and Diabetic Self-care among Foreign Diabetic Patients at a Hospital in South Korea
Eun Ae Koh, Hyojung Park
Korean J Adult Nurs. 2015;27(4):397-405.    doi: 10.7469/kjan.2015.27.4.397.


1. The Diabetes Control, Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1993. 329:977–986.
2. UK prospective Diabetes Study Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and complications I type 2 diabetes: Ukpds 38. BMJ. 1998. 317:703–713.
3. Stratton IM, Adler AI, Neil HA, Matthews DR, Manley SE, Cull CA, Hadden D, Turner RC, Holman RR. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. BMJ. 2000. 321:405–412.
4. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2006. Diabetes Care. 2006. 29:suppl 1. S4–S42.
5. Pham DT, Fortin F, Thibaudeau MF. The role of the health belief model in amputees' self-evaluation of adherence to diabetes self-care behaviors. Diabetes Educ. 1996. 22:126–132.
6. Yoon KH. Clinical characteristics of diabetes mellitus in Korea. Food Ind Nutr. 1999. 4:73–82.
7. Goudswaard AN, Stolk RP, Zuithoff NP, de Valk HW, Rutten GE. Long-term effects of self-management education for patients with type 2 diabetes taking maximal oral hypoglycaemic therapy: a randomized trial in primary care. Diabet Med. 2004. 21:491–496.
8. Norris SL, Lau J, Smith SJ, Schmid CH, Engelgau MM. Self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of the effect on glycemic control. Diabetes Care. 2002. 25:1159–1171.
9. Sarkadi A, Rosenqvist U. Experience-based group education in type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial. Patient Educ Couns. 2004. 53:291–298.
10. Kim YS, Seung JJ, Kim DM, Kim SB, Yoo HJ. A study on the evaluation of diet-education program of diabetes. J Korean Diabetes Assoc. 1986. 10:191–196.
11. Park CO, Baik HY, Lee HK, Min HK. The effect of Knowledge and dietary compliance on diabetic control in non-insulin dependent diabetics. J Korean Diabetes Assoc. 1988. 12:79–88.
12. Kim HS, Yoon KH, Yoo YS, Oh JA, Song MS, Shin MO, Kim KH, Song BR. Effects of critical pathway for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on glycemic control, the Knowledge on the disease, and the length of hospital stay. Korean Clinical Diabetes J. 2002. 3:76–86.
13. Song MS, Song KH, Ko SH, Ahn YB, Kim JS, Shin JH, Cho YK, Yoon KH, Cha BY, Son HY, Lee DH. The long-term effect of a structured diabetes education program for uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients - a 4-year follow-up. J Korean Diabetes Assoc. 2005. 29:140–150.
14. Courtney L, Gordon M, Romer L. A clinical path for adult diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 1997. 23:664–671.
15. Crane M, Werber B. Critical pathway approach to diabetic pedal infections in a multidisciplinary setting. J Foot Ankle Surg. 1999. 38:30–33. discussion 82-3.
16. Shim WS, Hong SB, Choi YS, Choi YJ, Ahn SH, Min KY, Kim EJ, Park IB, Nam M, Kim YS. Development of two parallel diabetes knowledge tests. J Korean Diabetes Assoc. 2006. 30:476–486.
17. Fitzgerald JT, Funnell MM, Hess GE, Barr PA, Anderson RM, Hiss RG, Davis WK. The reliability and validity of a brief diabetes knowledge test. Diabetes Care. 1998. 21:706–710.
18. Lee YW, Hwang WS, Choe SJ, Lee DH, Kim DH, Lee EH, Hong EG, Noh HL, Chung YS, Lee KW, Kim HM. The effect of intensive education on glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. J Korean Soc Endocrinol. 2003. 18:63–72.
19. James WH, Woodruff AB, Werner W. Effect of internal and external control upon changes in smoking behavior. J Consult Psychol. 1965. 29:184–186.
20. Chun JH, Jung SB, Sohn HS. Self-care and related factors in patients with diabetes. J Korean Diabetes Assoc. 1999. 23:193–206.
21. Becker MH, Maiman LA. Sociobehavioral determinants of compliance with health and medical care recommendations. Med Care. 1975. 13:10–24.
22. Aljasem LI, Peyrot M, Wissow L, Rubin RR. The impact of barriers and self-efficacy on self-care behaviors in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 2001. 27:393–404.
23. Krichbaum K, Aarestad V, Buethe M. Exploring the connection between self-efficacy and effective diabetes self-management. Diabetes Educ. 2003. 29:653–662.
24. Knight KM, Dornan T, Bundy C. The diabetes educator: trying hard, but must concentrate more on behavior. Diabet Med. 2006. 23:485–501.
25. Ellis SE, Speroff T, Dittus RS, Brown A, Pichert JW, Elasy TA. Diabetes patient education: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. Patient Educ Couns. 2004. 52:97–105.
26. Fan L, Sidani S. Effectiveness of self-management education interventions elements: a meta-analysis. Can J Diabetes. 2009. 33:18–26.
27. Bandura A. Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev. 1977. 84:191–215.
Full Text Links
  • KDJ
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2023 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr