Korean J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg.  2008 Mar;12(1):64-74.

Analysis of Clinical Outcome and Prognostic Factors in Patients with Gallbladder Cancer

  • 1The Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, Korea. kimdg@catholic.ac.kr


PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to determine proper treatment strategies to improve the outcome of patients with gallbladder cancer by an analysis of multiple factors affecting tumor recurrence and patient survival.
Between January 1991 and April 2006, surgery with curative intent was performed on 120 patients with gallbladder cancer. Of 120 cases, 35 patients had findings that precluded any further intervention, and the remaining 85 patients underwent curative resections that included a simple cholecystectomy in 43 cases, a radical cholecystectomy in 32 cases and an extended cholecystectomy in 10 cases. Clinicopathogical data was analyzed.
The presence of jaundice at presentation, gross morphology of the tumor, tumor cell differentiation, presence of a lymph node metastasis, lymphatic invasion and direct invasion to other contagious organ(s) and achievement of a tumor-free resection margin were associated with survival. For stage I gallbladder cancer, in only T2 lesions, patients that undergone a simple cholecystectomy had double the rate of recurrence as compared to patients that undergone a radical cholecystectomy (12.5% versus 26.1%; p = .119). For stage II gallbladder cancer, survival and disease-free survival for patients that undergone a radical cholecystectomy were improved as compared to patients that undergone a simple cholecystectomy; survival and disease-free survival was poor for patients that had undergone an extended cholecystectomy, especially in patients that had bile duct invasion (4/5; 80%). For stage III/IV gallbladder cancer, all patients (n = 6) underwent an extended cholecystectomy and half of the patients survived longer than one year.
Radical cholecystectomy could be a standard procedure for gallbladder cancer in addition to just stage II cancer. An aggressive approach including resecting contagious organ(s) in locally advanced gallbladder cancer could provide a survival benefit without an increase in complications.


gallbladder cancer; prognostic factors; simple cholecystectomy; radical cholecystectomy; extended cholecystectomy

MeSH Terms

Bile Ducts
Cell Differentiation
Disease-Free Survival
Gallbladder Neoplasms
Lymph Nodes
Lymphatic Metastasis
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