J Rheum Dis.  2012 Dec;19(6):307-315. 10.4078/jrd.2012.19.6.307.

Chronic Arthritis in Childhood

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang, Korea. kwangnamkim@naver.com


Chronic arthritis, the most common chronic rheumatic disease of childhood, is one of the most frequent chronic illness of children and an important cause of short and long term disability. It is not a single disease, but a group of related, genetically heterogeneous, phenotypically diverse immunoinflammatory disorders that affect the joints and other structures, possibly activated by contact with external antigens. Since its introduction in 1994, the term Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) has largely supplanted the terms Juvenile Chronic Arthritis and Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. However, it is necessary to understand the older classifications in order to interpret the literature on the subject. Each subtype of JIA is to provide a general introduction.



MeSH Terms

Arthritis, Juvenile Rheumatoid
Chronic Disease
Rheumatic Diseases

Cited by  1 articles

Differential Diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
Young Dae Kim, Alan V Job, Woojin Cho
J Rheum Dis. 2017;24(3):131-137.    doi: 10.4078/jrd.2017.24.3.131.


1. Cassidy JT, Petty RE, Laxer RM, Lindsley CB. Textbook of Pediatric Rheumatology. 2011. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders;211–235.
2. European League Against Rheumatism. EULAR Bulletin no. 4: nomenclature and classification of arthritis in children. 1977. Basel: National Zeitung AG.
3. Fink CW. Proposal for the development of classification criteria for idiopathic arthritides of childhood. J Rheumatol. 1995. 22:1566–1569.
4. Petty RE, Southwood TR, Manners P, Baum J, Glass DN, Goldenberg J, et al. International League of Associations for Rheumatology. International League of Associations for Rheumatology classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: second revision, Edmonton, 2001. J Rheumatol. 2004. 31:390–392.
5. Fantini F. Classification of chronic arthritides of childhood (juvenile idiopathic arthritis): criticisms and suggestions to improve the efficacy of the Santiago-Durban criteria. J Rheumatol. 2001. 28:456–459.
6. Danner S, Sordet C, Terzic J, Donato L, Velten M, Fischbach M, et al. Epidemiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in Alsace, France. J Rheumatol. 2006. 33:1377–1381.
7. Jarvis JN, Jiang K, Frank MB, Knowlton N, Aggarwal A, Wallace CA, et al. Gene expression profiling in neutrophils from children with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009. 60:1488–1495.
8. Avcin T, Cimaz R, Falcini F, Zulian F, Martini G, Simonini G, et al. Prevalence and clinical significance of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002. 61:608–611.
9. Khalkhali-Ellis Z, Moore TL, Hendrix MJ. Reduced levels of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in the serum and synovial fluid of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis patients correlates with disease severity. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1998. 16:753–756.
10. Da Silva JA, Larbre JP, Spector TD, Perry LA, Scott DL, Willoughby DA. Protective effect of androgens against inflammation induced cartilage degradation in male rodents. Ann Rheum Dis. 1993. 52:285–291.
11. Chikanza IC, Kuis W, Heijnen CJ. The influence of the hormonal system on pediatric rheumatic diseases. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2000. 26:911–925.
12. Weibel RE, Benor DE. Chronic arthropathy and musculoskeletal symptoms associated with rubella vaccines. A review of 124 claims submitted to the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Arthritis Rheum. 1996. 39:1529–1534.
13. Oen K, Fast M, Postl B. Epidemiology of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in Manitoba, Canada, 1975-92: cycles in incidence. J Rheumatol. 1995. 22:745–750.
14. Donn RP, Farhan A, Stevans A, Ramanan A, Ollier WE, Thomson W. British Paediatric Rheumatology Study Group. Neuroendocrine gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2002. 41:930–936.
15. Clemens LE, Albert E, Ansell BM. Sibling pairs affected by chronic arthritis of childhood: evidence for a genetic predisposition. J Rheumatol. 1985. 12:108–113.
16. van Rossum M, van Soesbergen R, de Kort S, ten Cate R, Zwinderman AH, de Jong B, et al. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2003. 30:825–828.
17. Aggarwal A, Bhardwaj A, Alam S, Misra R. Evidence for activation of the alternate complement pathway in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2000. 39:189–192.
18. Moore TL. Immunopathogenesis of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 1999. 11:377–383.
19. De Benedetti F, Vivarelli M, Pignatti P, Oliveri M, Massa M, Pistorio A, et al. Circulating levels of soluble E-selectin, P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2000. 27:2246–2250.
20. Foell D, Roth J. Proinflammatory S100 proteins in arthritis and autoimmune disease. Arthritis Rheum. 2004. 50:3762–3771.
21. Malleson PN, Fung MY, Petty RE, Mackinnon MJ, Schroeder ML. Autoantibodies in chronic arthritis of childhood: relations with each other and with histocompatibility antigens. Ann Rheum Dis. 1992. 51:1301–1306.
22. Gutowska-Grzegorczyk G, Baum J. Serum immunoglobulin and complement interrelationships in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 1977. 4:179–185.
23. Brunner J, Sitzmann FC. The diagnostic value of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies in children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2006. 24:449–451.
24. Allen RC, Dewez P, Stuart L, Gatenby PA, Sturgess A. Antinuclear antibodies using HEp-2 cells in normal children and in children with common infections. J Paediatr Child Health. 1991. 27:39–42.
25. Cimaz R, Corona F, Scarazatti M, Cohen E, Bardare M. Methotrexate treatment every other week in patients with juvenile chronic arthritis. Br J Rheumatol. 1996. 35:1030–1031.
26. Baum J, Gutowska G. Death in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1977. 20:suppl. 253.
27. Schuchmann L, Michels H, Renaud M, Renz K. Amyloidosis-a dreaded complication of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). (author's transl). Klin Padiatr. 1981. 193:67–72.
Full Text Links
  • JRD
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2024 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr