J Genet Med.  2011 Jun;8(1):28-34. 10.5734/JGM.2011.8.1.28.

Clinical Trials and Accuracy of Diagnostic Tests

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Laboratory Medicine and Genetics, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. cecilia@schmc.ac.kr
  • 2National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

Most clinicians understand clinical trials as the evaluation process for new medicine before their use. However, clinical trials can also be applied to laboratory diagnostic tests (LDTs) to verify diagnostic accuracy and efficacy before their clinical laboratory implementation for patients. The clinical trial of LDT has two distinctive characteristics that are different from the case of pharmaceuticals and thus worth special consideration. One of them is the level of evidence. The well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are known to provide the best evidence to prove the clinical efficacy of any pharmaceutical products. However, RCTs lose practicality when applied to LDTs due to various issues including ethical complications. For this reason, comparative study format is considered more feasible approach for LDTs. In addition pharmaceuticals and LDTs are different in that the user's intervention is not required for the former but critical to the latter. Moreover, in the case of pharmaceuticals, end-products are produced by manufacturers before being used by clinicians. However, in LDTs, once reagents and instruments are provided by manufacturers, they are first utilized by clinical laboratories to produce test results in order for clinicians to use them later. In other words, when it comes to LDTs, clinical laboratories play the role of manufacturers, providing reliable test results with improved quality assurance. Considering the distinctive characteristics of LDTs, we would like to offer detailed suggestions to successfully perform clinical trials in LDTs, which include analytical performance measures, clinical test performance measures, diagnostic test accuracy measures, clinical effectiveness measures, and post-implementation surveillance.

Keyword

Clinical trial; Diagnostic test; Laboratory diagnostic test; Diagnostic test accuracy
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