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Risk Assessment for Toluene Diisocyanate and Respiratory Disease Human Studies

PARK RM

Background Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a highly reactive chemical that causes sensitization and has also been associated with increased lung cancer. A risk assessment was conducted based on occupational epidemiologic estimates...
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Toll-like Receptor 4 Deficiency Aggravates Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation by Impairing Neutrophil Apoptosis in a Toluene Diisocyanate-Induced Murine Asthma Model

Chen S, Deng Y, He Q, Chen Y, Wang D, Sun W, He Y, Zou Z, Liang Z, Chen R, Yao L, Tao A

Purpose: Accumulating evidence has suggested that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is critically involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TLR4...
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Toluene Inhalation Causes Early Anxiety and Delayed Depression with Regulation of Dopamine Turnover, 5-HT1A Receptor, and Adult Neurogenesis in Mice

Kim J, Lim J, Moon SH, Liu KH, Choi HJ

Inhaled solvents such as toluene are of particular concern due to their abuse potential that is easily exposed to the environment. The inhalation of toluene causes various behavioral problems, but,...
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Modeling the effects of pollutant emissions from large industrial complexes on benzene, toluene, and xylene concentrations in urban areas

Bang JH, Oh I, Kim S, You S, Kim Y, Kwon HJ, Kim GB

This study utilized the Community Multiscale Air Quality model to simulate the spatial distribution of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) concentrations from large national industrial complexes (IC) located in the...
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IgA nephropathy in a laboratory worker that progressed to end-stage renal disease: a case report

Min B, Kim G, Kang T, Yoon C, Cho SI, Paek D

BACKGROUND: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of glomerulonephritis, a principal cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. The mechanisms of onset and progression of IgAN have not...
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Toluene-induced Encephalopathy: A Case Report

Park DK, Hwang CH

Toluene is one of well-known neuro-toxicants. It can readily cross the blood-brain-barrier and mainly affect the central nervous system (CNS). An inhalation is the typical route of its human exposure...
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Acute Pneumonitis Induced by Intravenous Thinner Injection in a Case of Suicidal Attempt

Lee HJ, Choi BH, Kim MJ, Hong JS

  • KMID: 1846321
  • J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol.
  • 2015 Jun;13(1):33-35.
A 24 year-old man attempted suicide by injection of 1 cc of thinner into his left antecubital vein; 3 hours later, he visited our emergency room because of left chest...
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Early Liver and Kidney Dysfunction Associated with Occupational Exposure to Sub-Threshold Limit Value Levels of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Unleaded Petrol

Neghab M, Hosseinzadeh K, Hassanzadeh J

BACKGROUND: Unleaded petrol contains significant amounts of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX). Toxic responses following occupational exposure to unleaded petrol have been evaluated only in...
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Hippuric Acid Levels in Paint Workers at Steel Furniture Manufacturers in Thailand

Decharat S

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to determine hippuric acid levels in urine samples, airborne toluene levels, acute and chronic neurological symptoms, and to describe any correlation between urinary...
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IL-4 and IL-5 Secretions Predominate in the Airways of Wistar Rats Exposed to Toluene Diisocyanate Vapor

Kouadio K, Zheng KC, Toure AA, Dosso M, Todoriki H

  • KMID: 1791969
  • J Prev Med Public Health.
  • 2014 Jan;47(1):57-63.
OBJECTIVES: We established a Wistar rat model of asthma caused by toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure, and investigated the relationship between TDI exposure concentrations and respiratory hypersensitivity, airway inflammation, and cytokine...
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Hepatotoxicity in Rats Treated with Dimethylformamide or Toluene or Both

Kim KW, Chung YH

  • KMID: 2317834
  • Toxicol Res.
  • 2013 Sep;29(3):187-193.
The effects of toluene in dimethylformamide (DMF)-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated with respect to the induction of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) and the activities of related enzymes. The rats were treated intraperitoneally...
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Urinary Hippuric Acid and trans,trans-Muconic Acid Levels According to Commuting Mode and Duration, Residential Environment, and Intake of Preservative-Added Foods and Beverages in University Students

Kim KM, Eom SY, Yim DH, Moon SI, Kim YD, Kim H

  • KMID: 2035675
  • Korean J Occup Environ Med.
  • 2012 Mar;24(1):61-71.
OBJECTIVES: Automobile exhaust gases contain benzene and toluene, which are excreted in human urine as trans,trans-muconic acid and hippuric acid, respectively. Sorbic acid and benzoic acid, used as food preservatives,...
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The Characteristics of the Appearance and Health Risks of Volatile Organic Compounds in Industrial (Pohang, Ulsan) and Non-Industrial (Gyeongju) Areas

Jung JH, Choi BW, Kim MH, Baek SO, Lee GW, Shon BH

  • KMID: 2380179
  • Environ Health Toxicol.
  • 2012 ;27(1):e2012012.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the health and environmental risk factors of air contaminants that influence environmental and respiratory diseases in Gyeongju, Pohang and Ulsan in...
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Biomarkers Predicting Isocyanate-Induced Asthma

Palikhe NS, Kim JH, Park HS

Three diisocyanates can cause occupational asthma (OA): toluene diisocyanate (TDI), 4,4 diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), and 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). We analyzed potential biomarkers of isocyanate-induced OA, based on investigated immunologic, genetic,...
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Benzene and toluene concentrations in a hemodialysis room in a medium sized South Korean city

Kang MS, Hong JR, Gil HW, Yang JO, Lee EY, Hong SY, Jun YT, Son BS

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The current study was designed to determine whether the indoor air pollution in a hemodialysis room (HD) was different from that of other comparable areas in a hospital....
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Effects of Zinc and Hypothermic Process during the Light and Dark Adaptation of Vertebrate Retina

Park JS, Kim HJ, Jung H, Kim SG, Choi GH, Kim BA, Suh TS, Kim SK, Kim YY, Kim SY

  • KMID: 2021434
  • J Korean Ophthalmol Soc.
  • 2007 Jul;48(7):969-979.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of zinc treatment and hypothermia on visual adaptation and visual sensitivity in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), which are poikilothermal animals...
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Occupational Asthma due to Styrene and Toluene Diisocyanate

  • KMID: 2299630
  • Korean J Asthma Allergy Clin Immunol.
  • 2007 Mar;27(1):70-73.
Styrene, a common solvent and volatile organic compound (VOC), is widely used in the factories of plastics, resins, insulators, coatings, and paints. While toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a well-known causative...
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Rapidly Progressive Toxic Leukoencephalomyelopathy with Myelodysplastic Syndrome: a Clinicopathological Correlation

Jung KH, Chu K, Kim YA, Jeon BS

Neurological disorders induced by long-term exposure to organic solvents typically have a slowly progressive clinical course, which may be arrested or even reversed following discontinuation of exposure. We report an...
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Prevalence and Clinical Significance of New Sensitization to Inhalant Allergens in Toluene Diisocyanate-induced Asthmatic Patients

  • KMID: 2234387
  • Korean J Asthma Allergy Clin Immunol.
  • 2006 Sep;26(3):213-218.
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that half of toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced asthma patients had persistent asthmatic symptoms even after complete avoidance. We hypothesized that new sensitization to common inhalant allergens...
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A Case of Toluene-induced Renal Tubular Acidosis Presented with Hypokalemic Paralysis

Park JJ, Chang H, Jung JY, Jung SJ, Song KH, Suh WN, Chun SW, Lee HY, Yoo TH

  • KMID: 2331499
  • J Korean Soc Emerg Med.
  • 2006 Dec;17(6):656-658.
Toluene is known to cause a moderate degree of hypokalemia, myalgia, and even muscular weakness. We encountered the patient with acute hypokalemic paralysis in a chronic glue sniffer. A 32-year-old...
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