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Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Dysregulated Autophagy in Human Pancreatic Beta Cells

Moon S, Jung HS

Pancreatic beta cell homeostasis is crucial for the synthesis and secretion of insulin; disruption of homeostasis causes diabetes, and is a treatment target. Adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through...
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DA-1241, a Novel GPR119 Agonist, Improves Hyperglycaemia by Inhibiting Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Enhancing Insulin Secretion in Diabetic Mice

Kim Y, Lee SW, Wang H, Kim RH, Park HK, Lee H, Kang ES

Background: We investigated the antidiabetic effects of DA-1241, a novel G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 119 agonist, in vitro and in vivo. Methods: DA-1241 was administrated to high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice...
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Assessment of Insulin Secretion and Insulin Resistance in Human

Park SY, Gautier JF, Chon S

The impaired insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance (or decreased insulin sensitivity) play a major role in the pathogenesis of all types of diabetes mellitus (DM). It is very important...
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Sulfonylurea, an Update

Kim TN

Sulfonylureas (SUs) are widely prescribed in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Despite the availability of several newer agents, SUs still play an important role in glucose-lowering therapy. However, over...
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The Shape of the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test-Glucose Response Curve in Islet Cell Antibody-Positive vs. -Negative Obese Youth Clinically Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes

Kim JY, Tfayli H, Bacha F, Arslanian S

Background: The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-glucose response curves (GRCs; incessant increase, monophasic, and biphasic) reflect insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, being worse in the former and superior in the...
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Immediate Changes of Glucose Metabolism After Gastretomy for Early Gastric Cancer in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Kim KH, Kim YH, Seo KW, Yoon KY, Shin YM, Choi YS, Kim BK

Objectives: It is well known that type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is dramatically improved after bariatric surgery, although the mechanisms have not been clearly identified. The skill required for gastric surgery...
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Notch1 Has an Important Role in β-Cell Mass Determination and Development of Diabetes

Eom YS, Gwon AR, Kwak KM, Youn JY, Park H, Kim KW, Kim BJ

Background Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cell fate during pancreas development. Notch signaling is also expressed in adult pancreas. There are few studies...
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Role of exercise on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function: is exercise sufficient for the prevention of youth-onset type 2 diabetes?

Kim JY, Jeon JY

Parallel with the current pediatric obesity epidemic, the escalating rates of youthonset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have become a major public health burden. Although lifestyle modification can be the...
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Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Examination of Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion across Puberty among Non-Hispanic Black and White Children

Marwitz SE, Gaines MV, Brady SM, Mi SJ, Broadney MM, Yanovski SZ, Hubbard VS, Yanovski JA

Background: Few studies using criterion measures of insulin sensitivity (SI) and insulin secretory capacity (ISC) have been conducted across puberty to adulthood. We examined how SI and ISC change from...
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Insulin Secretion and Insulin Resistance Trajectories over 1 Year after Kidney Transplantation: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study

Bang JB, Oh CK, Kim YS, Kim SH, Yu HC, Kim CD, Ju MK, So BJ, Lee SH, Han SY, Jung CW, Kim JK, Lee SH, Jeon JY

Background: We investigated the changing patterns of insulin secretion and resistance and risk factors contributing to the development of post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) in kidney recipients under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression regimen...
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Changes in Glucose Metabolism with Aging

Hong EG

The increasing risk of glucose intolerance and diabetes associated with aging is well established. However, it is difficult to determine whether changes in glucose metabolism result from biological aging itself...
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Early Assessment of the Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Can Fasting Parameters of Glucose Metabolism Contribute to Risk Prediction?

Falcone V, Kotzaeridi G, Breil MH, Rosicky I, Stopp T, Yerlikaya-Schatten G, Feichtinger M, Eppel W, Husslein P, Tura A, Göbl CS

BACKGROUND: An early identification of the risk groups might be beneficial in reducing morbidities in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the biochemical predictors...
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The Association of Adiponectin and Visceral Fat with Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Dysfunction

Moon HU, Ha KH, Han SJ, Kim HJ, Kim DJ

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic abnormalities. We investigated the relationship of adiponectin levels and visceral adiposity with insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 1,347...
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Clinical characteristics in Japanese children with nonobese type 2 diabetes

Urakami T

It is well known that the incidence of youth-onset type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide. On the other hand, most studies have shown that the majority of youth-onset type 2...
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Clinical Characteristics of People with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes between 2015 and 2016: Difference by Age and Body Mass Index

Ha KH, Park CY, Jeong IK, Kim HJ, Kim SY, Kim WJ, Yoon JS, Kim IJ, Kim DJ, Kim S

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the clinical characteristics of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in newly diagnosed, drug-naive people with type 2 diabetes by analyzing nationwide cross-sectional data. METHODS: We collected the clinical...
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Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes with Robust Recovery in Insulin Secretion in a Pregnant Woman as an Initial Manifestation of Third-Trimester Intrauterine Fetal Death

Seo MH, Han H, Jeong JY, Chang JY, Jung SY

Fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (FT1DM) is a clinical entity in which the process of beta-cell destruction and subsequent progression of hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis are extremely rapid. A 34-year-old woman...
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Beta-Cell Function and Nutrient Intake

Lee YM

Pancreatic beta-cells have an important role in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis through insulin secretion. Therefore, decreased insulin secretion function induced by impaired beta-cell is one of the leading causes of...
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Comparison of the Usefulness of the Updated Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2) with the Original HOMA1 in the Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Koreans

Song YS, Hwang YC, Ahn HY, Park CY

BACKGROUND: The original homeostasis model assessment (HOMA1) and the updated HOMA model (HOMA2) have been used to evaluate insulin resistance (IR) and β-cell function, but little is known about the...
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C-Peptide-Based Index Is More Related to Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Non-Diabetic Subjects than Insulin-Based Index

Kim JD, Kang SJ, Lee MK, Park SE, Rhee EJ, Park CY, Oh KW, Park SW, Lee WY

BACKGROUND: Diabetes can be efficiently prevented by life style modification and medical therapy. So, identification for high risk subjects for incident type 2 diabetes is important. The aim of this...
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Resistin Inhibits Insulin Secretion Through Inhibition of Insulin Granule Docking Via Downregulation of Rab3A in Pancreatic Beta-cells

Park JH

Resistin is a recently described novel adipokine that has been suggested to play an important role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes by inhibiting insulin receptor...
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