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Leaky Gut and Gut-Liver Axis in Liver Cirrhosis: Clinical Studies Update

Fukui H

Portal blood flows into the liver containing the gut microbiome and its products such as endotoxin and bacterial DNA. The cirrhotic liver acts and detoxifies as the initial site of...
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Up-to-date information on polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column direct hemoperfusion for septic shock

Mitaka C, Kusaoi M, Kawagoe I, Satoh D

Endotoxin adsorption therapy by polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column direct hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) has been used for the treatment of septic shock patients. Endotoxin, an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, plays...
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Association between endotoxin levels in dust from indoor swine housing environments and the immune responses of pigs

Roque K, Shin KM, Jo JH, Lim GD, Song ES, Shin SJ, Gautam R, Lee JH, Kim YG, Cho AR, Kim CY, Kim HJ, Lee MS, Oh HG, Lee BC, Kim JH, Kim KH, Jeong HK, Kim HA, Heo Y

Indoor animal husbandry environments are inevitably contaminated with endotoxins. Endotoxin exposure is associated with various inflammatory illnesses in animals. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between the degree of endotoxin...
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The Curves Exercise Suppresses Endotoxemia in Korean Women with Obesity

Jin SA, Kim SK, Seo HJ, Kim M, Ahn KT, Kim JH, Park JH, Lee JH, Choi SW, Jeong JO

Obesity and metabolic syndrome is a worldwide pandemic and associated with high cardiovascular risk. Metabolic endotoxemia (ME) is thought to be an underlying molecular mechanism. It triggers toll-like receptor 4-mediated...
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The effects of paeoniflorin injection on soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid-1 (sTREM-1) levels in severe septic rats

Liu XR, Xu J, Wang YM, Ji MS, Liu FS

Paeoniflorin (PAE) is the most abundant compound in Xuebijing injection widely used to treat sepsis. We aimed to investigate effect of PAE on expression of soluble triggering receptor expressed on...
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Lipid A as a Drug Target and Therapeutic Molecule

Joo SH

In this review, lipid A, from its discovery to recent findings, is presented as a drug target and therapeutic molecule. First, the biosynthetic pathway for lipid A, the Raetz pathway,...
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Polymyxin B Hemoperfusion in Pneumonic Septic Shock Caused by Gram-Negative Bacteria

Yoo JW, Park SY, Jeon J, Huh JW, Lim CM, Koh Y, Hong SB

Severe sepsis and septic shock are the main causes of death in critically ill patients. Early detection and appropriate treatment according to guidelines are crucial for achieving favorable outcomes. Endotoxin...
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Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments

Roque K, Shin KM, Jo JH, Kim HA, Heo Y

Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from...
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Usefulness of the Endotoxin Activity Assay to Evaluate the Degree of Lung Injury

Sakamoto Y, Inoue S, Iwamura T, Yamashita , Nakashima , Koami H, Miike T, Yahata M, Imahase H, Goto A, Narumi S, Ohta M, Yamada CK

PURPOSE: It has been reported that the Pulse Contour Cardiac Output (PiCCO) is very useful mainly in the field of intensive care and treatment to grasp the pathophysiological conditions of...
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The Effects of Plasma Endotoxin Level on Survival Time of Terminally Ill Cancer Patients

Lee JA, Yoon HM, Choi YS, Yeon JE, Lee JY

PURPOSE: Since most terminally ill cancer patients die of multiple organ failure, plasma endotoxin concentration levels may be used to predict the life expectancy. This study was performed to evaluate...
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Effects of plasma endotoxin concentrations on the severity of atopic dermatitis in children

Kim JY, Kim EK, Lee HJ, Shin YH, Lee HK, Kim J

PURPOSE: Endotoxin exposure is associated with the development and pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The present study aimed to determine whether plasma endotoxins are elevated in children with atopic dermatitis (AD)...
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Immunopathogenesis of Allergic Asthma: More Than the Th2 Hypothesis

Kim YM, Kim YS, Jeon SG, Kim YK

Asthma is a chronic obstructive airway disease that involves inflammation of the respiratory tract. Biological contaminants in indoor air can induce innate and adaptive immune responses and inflammation, resulting in...
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Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

Mohammadi , Shalavi S, Yazdizadeh M

The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial...
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The Effect of Intestinal Permeability and Endotoxemia on the Prognosis of Acute Pancreatitis

Koh YY, Jeon WK, Cho YK, Kim HJ, Chung WG, Chon CU, Oh TY, Shin JH

  • KMID: 2167424
  • Gut Liver.
  • 2012 Oct;6(4):505-511.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Early intestinal mucosal damage plays an important role in severe acute pancreatitis (AP). Previous studies have shown that intestinal permeability (IP), serum endotoxin and cytokines contribute to the early...
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Association of Endotoxins and Colon Polyp: A Case-Control Study

Lee KK, Yum KS

Endotoxins are known to be associated with the occurrence of various chronic diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the role of endotoxins in the pathogenesis of colon polyps through...
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Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase is Involved in the Release of High Mobility Group Box 1 Via the Interferon-beta Signaling Pathway

Ma L, Kim SJ, Oh KI

  • KMID: 2424209
  • Immune Netw.
  • 2012 Aug;12(4):148-154.
Previously, we have reported that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a proinflammatory mediator in sepsis, is released via the IFN-beta-mediated JAK/STAT pathway. However, detailed mechanisms are still unclear. In...
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Endotoxin Is Not Essential for the Development of Cockroach Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation

Shin YS, Sohn JH, Kim JY, Lee JH, Cho SH, Hong SJ, Lee JS, Hong CS, Park JW

PURPOSE: Cockroach (CR) is an important inhalant allergen and can induce allergic asthma. However, the mechanism by which CR induces airway allergic inflammation and the role of endotoxin in CR...
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Changes in biologic markers of oxidative stress and plasma endotoxin levels in gynecologic cancer patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy: a pilot study

Kim HJ, Kim JH, Ha SW, Wu HG, Choi JH, Lee KM, Kang SW

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the effects of pelvic radiotherapy on biologic markers of oxidative stress and plasma endotoxin levels, and to assess the relationship between the...
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Microbial Exposure Assessment in Sawmill, Livestock Feed Industry, and Metal Working Fluids Handling Industry

Park H, Park H, Lee I

  • KMID: 2316992
  • Saf Health Work.
  • 2010 Dec;1(2):183-191.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate the distribution patterns and exposure concentrations of bioaerosols in industries suspected to have high levels of bioaerosol exposure. METHODS: We selected 11...
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The Association between Visceral Fat and Endotoxin

Chung JH, Kang MK, Rho JS, Yum KS

  • KMID: 1992478
  • Korean J Obes.
  • 2010 Sep;19(3):78-84.
BACKGROUND: Visceral fat accumulation has been known to be an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease with increased risk of diabetes. It is also associated with inflammation factor, such as...
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