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The latest trend in neuromuscular monitoring: return of the electromyography

Lee W

To reduce the risk of residual neuromuscular blockade, neuromuscular monitoring must be performed. Acceleromyography (AMG)-based neuromuscular monitoring was regarded as “clinical gold standard” and widely applied. However, issues related to...
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Comeback of ketamine: resurfacing facts and dispelling myths

Kumar A, Kohli A

Initially known as CI-581, ketamine was first synthesized in 1962 as a replacement from phencyclidine. It has since been used as an anesthetic and analgesic. In addition, it has bronchodilating,...
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Risk factors of inadequate emergence following general anesthesia with an emphasis on patients with substance dependence history

Makarem J, larijani AH, Eslami B, Jafarzadeh A, Karvandian K, Mireskandari SM

Background: This study aims to define the incidence and risk factors of both emergence agitation and hypoactive emergence in adult patients and substance-dependent patients following general anesthesia to elaborate on...
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Emergence agitation: current knowledge and unresolved questions

Lee SJ, Sung TY

Emergence agitation (EA), also referred to as emergence delirium, can have clinically significant consequences. The mechanism of EA remains unclear. The proposed risk factors of EA include age, male sex,...
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Comparison of sugammadex and pyridostigmine bromide for reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in short-term pediatric surgery: a prospective randomized study

An J, Kim E, Lee J, Kim H, Son J, Huh J, Woo K

BACKGROUND: Sugammadex reverses rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade quickly and effectively. Herein, we compared the efficacy of sugammadex and pyridostigmine in the reversal of rocuronium-induced light block or minimal block in pediatric...
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Postoperative pain control by ultrasound guided brachial plexus block reduces emergence delirium in pediatric patients

Hong B, Jung C, Jo Y, Youn S, Kim Y, Chung W, Yoon SH, Shin HD, Lim CS

BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients awakening from general anesthesia may experience emergence delirium (ED), often due to inadequate pain control. Nerve block completely inhibits innervation of the surgical site and is superior...
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Considerations for Fabrication of CAD-CAM Abutments: Part II. Designing Abutment

Ko KH, Park JH, Cho LR

CAD-CAM (computer aided design–computer aided manufacturing) abutment is a convenient and useful prosthetic method in tilted implant installation or complicated esthetic situations. However, the dentist must design properly and order...
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Three minutes propofol after sevoflurane anesthesia to prevent emergence agitation following inguinal hernia repair in children: a randomized controlled trial

Abbas MS, El-Hakeem , Kamel HE

BACKGROUND: Emergence agitation (EA) is a common problem after sevoflurane anesthesia among children. There have been mixed results with control of EA using propofol 1 mg/kg bolus following sevoflurane anesthesia....
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Postoperative emergence agitation and intraoperative sevoflurane sedation under caudal block in children: a randomized comparison of two sevoflurane doses

Choi EK, Park S, Park KB, Kwak KH, Park S

BACKGROUND: Sub-umbilical surgery under caudal block in conjunction with sevoflurane sedation may be safe in terms of maintaining spontaneous breathing and avoiding complications associated with general anesthesia. However, sevoflurane-induced emergence...
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Hypercapnia does not shorten emergence time from propofol anesthesia: a pilot randomized clinical study

Kwon KH, Bae H, Kang HG, In J

BACKGROUND: The elimination of anesthetic agents is a decisive factor in the emergence from general anesthesia. In this pilot study, we hypothesized that hypercapnia would decrease the emergence time from...
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Genomic Insights into the Rice Blast Fungus through Estimation of Gene Emergence Time in Phylogenetic Context

Choi J, Lee JJ, Jeon J

The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is an important pathogen of rice plants. It is well known that genes encoded in the genome have different evolutionary histories that are related...
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A survey of current concepts and practices related to use of neuromuscular blockers with antagonists and neuromuscular monitoring among Korean anesthesiologists

Choi S, Jung M, Kim KM, Lee S, Yang HS, Lee JS

BACKGROUND: The goal of this nationwide survey was to investigate the current concepts and practices of the use of neuromuscular blockers and their antagonists, and the availability and clinical practice...
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Conservative and esthetic closure of maxillary midline diastema without creating "black triangle" using direct resin composite

Jung KH, Kwon EY, Choi YK, Kim SY, Jeon HM, Park JK

Anterior diastemas are common esthetic problems. One of the challenges in clinical esthetic dentistry is closing anterior diastemas without creating “black triangles” between the teeth. The success of a restorative...
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Cause analysis, prevention, and treatment of postoperative restlessness after general anesthesia in children with cleft palate

Xu H, Mei XP, Xu LX

Cleft palate is one of the most common congenital malformations of the oral and maxillofacial region, with an incidence rate of around 0.1%. Early surgical repair is the only method...
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Dyspnea due to Residual Neuromuscular Blockade in Elderly Patient with Unrecognized Pre-existing Unilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis

Lim CH, Kim YJ, Kim JH, Jeong JS

Muscle relaxation using neuromuscular blocking agent is an essential process for endotracheal intubation and surgery, and requires adequate recovery of muscle function after surgery. Residual neuromuscular blockade is defined as...
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Risperidone in a child with untractable emergency delirium: a case report

Shin YH, Lee SH, Kim DY

A 6-year-old boy was scheduled for thoracic magnetic resonance imaging under deep sedation with midazolam 1.8 mg and propofol 100 µg/kg/min via intravenous injection. He showed emergence delirium in the...
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The change of sevoflurane to desflurane after anesthesia induction induces rapid emergence without increased cardiovascular responses and emergence delirium in pediatric strabismus surgery patients

Hwang BY, Kwon JY, Kim SY, Lee DW, Hong JM, Kim E

BACKGROUND: Desflurane has lower solubility and shows a more rapid induction and recovery than sevoflurane, although it often induces increased cardiovascular response, emergence delirium, and respiratory complications. The change of...
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Optimal Effect-Site Concentration of Remifentanil for Inhibiting Response to Laryngeal Mask Airway Removal during Emergence

Park SJ, Baek JY, Jee DL

PURPOSE: This randomized, controlled, double-blind study was designed to determine the optimal dose of remifentanil for preventing complications associated with the removal of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) without delaying...
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Regeneration of emergence profile with soft tissue graft and wide computer aided design/computer aided mamufacturing abutments: a clinical report

Kim MK, Lee JH, Ahn SG, Kim KA, Seo JM

Fixed restoration using implants for patients with posterior partial edentulism is generalized technique. As patient demands increase, the functional and esthetic implant restoration to achieve similar results to lost natural...
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Severe neurologic manifestations in acute intermittent porphyria developed after spine surgery under general anesthesia: a case report

Park EY, Kim YS, Lim KJ, Lee HK, Lee SK, Choi H, Kang MH

Porphyrias are inherited metabolic disorders resulting from a specific enzyme defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Porphyrias are induced by various precipitants. Clinical features include abdominal pain, neurologic manifestations, autonomic...
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