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Acute Liver Failure: Current Updates and Management

Kim JD

Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare disease condition with a dynamic clinical course and catastrophic outcomes. Several etiologies are involved in ALF. Hepatitis A and B infections and indiscriminate...
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Discrepancies Between Implementation and Perceived Effectiveness of Leading Safety Indicators in the US Dairy Product Manufacturing Industry

Derlyke PV, Marín LS, Zreiqat M

Background In the United States, the dairy product manufacturing industry has consistently had higher rates of work-related nonfatal injuries and illnesses compared to the national average for industries in all sectors....
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Application of Standardization for Causal Inference in Observational Studies: A Step-by-step Tutorial for Analysis Using R Software

Lee S, Lee W

Epidemiological studies typically examine the causal effect of exposure on a health outcome. Standardization is one of the most straightforward methods for estimating causal estimands. However, compared to inverse probability...
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Causal Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Atrial Fibrillation: A Mendelian Randomization Study

Yang JH, Jeong JA, Kweon SS, Lee YH, Choi SW, Ryu SY, Nam HS, Park KS, Kim HY, Shin MH

Background and Objectives: Previous observational studies presented a positive association between alcohol and atrial fibrillation (AF). However, previous studies using genetic polymorphisms on the causal relationship between alcohol consumption and...
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Research Trends on Factors Influencing the Quality of Life of Cancer Survivors: Text Network Analysis and Topic Modeling Approach

Park JH, Chun M, Bae SH, Kim HJ

Purpose: This study aimed to identify the major keywords and the structure of the networks for each major topic to gain knowledge on factors influencing the quality of life of...
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Adverse events following pediatric immunization in an Indian city

Paramkusham V, Palakurthy P, Gurram Ns, Talla V, Vishwas HN, Jupally VR, Pattnaik S

Purpose Adverse effects are noticeable immediately after vaccination, especially when vaccinated to healthy people at the time of vaccination. The vaccine may cause adverse events which are very rare but adverse...
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Aberrant Effective Connectivity of the Ventral Putamen in Boys With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Lan Z, Sun Y, Zhao L, Xiao Y, Kuai C, Xue SW

Objective The connectivity alterations in the putamen were found in revealing the neural correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but whether the effective connectivity of the putamen is atypical in ADHD...
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Association between Alcohol Consumption and Serum Cortisol Levels: a Mendelian Randomization Study

Yang JH, Kweon SS, Lee YH, Choi SW, Ryu SY, Nam HS, Park KS, Kim HY, Shin MH

Background: Several studies have reported conflicting results regarding the relationship between alcohol consumption and cortisol levels. However, the causality between alcohol consumption and cortisol levels has not been evaluated. Methods: This...
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Causal Attributions and Quality of Life of Korean Breast Cancer Survivors

Lee Y, Jeon YW, Im EO, Baek JM

Purpose The purpose of this study was threefold: to explore the causal attributions of breast cancer, examine underlying factors of the attributes, and determine their relationship to quality of life among...
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Methods for Evaluating the Accuracy of Diagnostic Tests

Lim CY

The accuracy of a diagnostic test should be evaluated before it is used in clinical situations. The sensitivity, specificity, and the trade-off between the 2 need to be considered. Sensitivity...
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Overview of Mendelian Randomization Analysis

Lee YH

he inference of causality from observational evidence may be problematic, as observational studies frequently include confounding factors or reverse causation for the identification of associations between exposure and outcome. Thus,...
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Causal Claims in Health Sciences and Medicine: a Difference-in-Differences Method

Kim KN

The difference-in-differences (DID) method is a useful tool to make causal claims using observational data. The key idea is to compare the difference between exposure and control groups before and...
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Pragmatic Clinical Trials for Real-World Evidence: Concept and Implementation

Jeong NY, Kim SH, Lim E, Choi NK

The importance of real-world evidence (RWE) has been highlighted in recent years, and the limitations of the classical randomized controlled trials, also known as explanatory clinical trials (ECTs), have been...
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Competing Risk Model in Survival Analysis

Jeon Y, Lee WK

Survival analysis is primarily used to identify the time-to-event for events of interest. However, there subjects may undergo several outcomes; competing risks occur when other events may affect the incidence...
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Factors Associated with 5-Year Costs of Care among a Cohort of Alcohol Use Disorder Patients: A Bayesian Network Model

Rautiainen E, Ryynänen O, Laatikainen T, Kekolahti

Objectives To examine the direct effects of risk factors associated with the 5-year costs of care in persons with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and to examine whether remission decreases the costs...
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A Case Report of Cyanopsia after Taking Sildenafil

Lee CH, Yoon JS, Ji E

The emergence of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 inhibitors gave rise to the solution for erectile dysfunction, starting with the development of sildenafil. Although their efficacy in treating erectile dysfunction has been...
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Two-sample Mendelian randomization study for schizophrenia and breast cancer

Kim S, Kim K, Myung W, Lee H, Kim H, Kim DK, Won HH

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the risk of schizophrenia is causally associated with the risk of breast cancer. Methods: Bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization (TSMR) was performed...
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Basic Concepts of a Mendelian Randomization Approach

Go TH, Kang DR

The Mendelian Randomization (MR) approach is a method that enables causal inference in observational studies. There are 3 assumptions that must be satisfied to obtain suitable results: 1) The genetic...
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Improving Causal Inference in Observational Studies: Interrupted Time Series Design

Kim KN

Interrupted time series analysis is often used to evaluate the effects of healthcare policies and interventional projects using observational data. Interrupted time series analysis is one of the epidemiological methods,...
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Equivalence model: A new graphical model for causal inference

Poorolajal J

Although several causal models relevant to epidemiology have been proposed, a key question that has remained unanswered is why some people at high-risk for a particular disease do not develop...
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