Korean J Med Hist.  1994 Dec;3(2):147-169.

Government in Korea with the Special Reference to the Clinical Activities at the Colonial Governmental Hospital: 'Chosun-Chong-Dok-Bu Ui-Won' (1913-1927)

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea.

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to elucidate the ways of introduction of modern psychiatric care into Korea and to demonstrate the changing patterns of psychiatric care during the time between 1913 and 1927. The study was focused on the clinical activities of the colonial governmental hospital on the basis of the annual reports of the hospital from 1912 to 1928. The investigation has revealed the fact that the first special institution for the care of the mentally ill patients was founded in 1911 in Seoul by the colonial government which was called 'Che Saeng Won'. It was also confirmed that the first clinical department of the psychiatry in Korea was established in 1913 at the colonial governmental hospital, 'Chong-dok-bu Ui-won' which has taken over the role of psychiatric care from Che Saeng Won. The first chairman of the department of psychiatry was Misuzu Nobuharu and his assistant was Shim Ho-Sub, the first Korean psychiatrist who became assistant professor of psychiatry at Kyongsung medical college in 1916-1917 but moved to Severance hospital and changed his speciality to neurology of internal medicine. The department had two physicians and 4 care persons at the beginning stage and 22 beds for the mentally ill patients in the hospital which had total 330 beds. Later, the department has developed to 54 bed clinic with 4 staff physicians.It was noteworthy, however, that the treatment and care for the mentally ill patients by the western medical facilities in Korea probably began since 1880s at the general hospitals and clinics, such as Che-saeng Ui-won in Pusan, Royal hospital, Che-choong-won in Seoul, Paton memorial hospital in Chinjoo, Tai-Han hospital and Severance hospital in Seoul.In 1911, Australian psychiatrist McLaren began to work at Paton memorial hospital in Chinjoo, who became professor of neurology and psychiatry at Severance Union Medical College in Seoul. At Severance hospital, the psychiatric ward opened in 1923 with 10 beds. Dr. McLaren as missionary physician allegedly carried out humanitarian treatment and care of the mentally ill patients.The patterns of admission rates in accordance with diagnostic categories and racial differences at In- and Outpatient clinic of psychiatric department have offered no significant clues for the cultural psychiatric interpretation except for the case of hysterical psychosis. Among the total number of admitted cases of hysterical psychosis at psychiatric ward of Chong-dok-bu Ui-won the number of Japanese women were predominantly high throughout the period of investigation in comparison with the Korean patients. Some possible factors which might have influenced to this fact were suggested. Discussion was also held on the changing patterns of psychiatric diagnosis and nomenclature during the period.Colonial governmental hospital made great effort to expand the clinical and research facilities, therefore, Japanese psychiatrists have introduced the advanced knowledges of German psychiatry into Korea. Regrettably, however, the knowledges could not be transmitted to the Korean psychiatrists continuously until 1927 probably due to the discriminative policy of colonial government on the medical education for the Korean people.

Keyword

Japanese Colonial Governmental Hospital in Korea; Psychiatric Care
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