J Korean Soc Radiol.  2023 Jan;84(1):92-109. 10.3348/jksr.2022.0158.

Clinical Application of the 2021 Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS)

  • 1Department of Radiology, Gangneung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung, Korea
  • 2Department of Radiology, Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul, Korea


In patients with thyroid nodules, ultrasonography (US) has been established as a primary diagnostic imaging method and is essential for treatment decision. The Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) is a pattern-based, US malignancy risk stratification system that can easily diagnose nodules during real-time ultrasound examinations. The 2021 K-TIRADS clarified the US criteria for nodule classification and revised the size thresholds for nodule biopsy, thereby reducing unnecessary biopsies for benign nodules while maintaining the appropriate sensitivity to detect malignant tumors in patients without feature of high risk thyroid cancer. Thyroid radiology practice has an important clinical role in the diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of patients with thyroid nodules, and should be performed according to standard practice guidelines for proper and effective clinical care.


Thyroid Nodule; Ultrasonography; Diagnosis; Biopsy; Fine-Needle; Practice Guideline
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