J Korean Med Sci.  2023 Jan;38(1):e15. 10.3346/jkms.2023.38.e15.

The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Embitterment Disorder and Stress, Depression, Self-Esteem, Impulsiveness, and Suicidal Ideation in Korea Soldiers in the Local Area

  • 1Department of Counseling Psychology, Graduate School of Policy and Management, Dankook University, Cheonan, Korea
  • 2Department of Psychology, Graduate School, Dankook University, Cheonan, Korea
  • 3Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan, Korea
  • 4Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan, Korea
  • 5Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea
  • 6Department of Psychology & Psychotherapy, College of Public Health Science, Dankook University, Cheonan, Korea


The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of posttraumatic embitterment disorder (PTED) among soldiers, and examine its relation to stress, depression, self-esteem, impulsiveness, and suicidal ideation.
The subjects of this study were 200 soldiers and 197 control subjects, a total of 397 persons. Measurement tools used included the PTED self-rating scale, Stress Response Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and Beck Scale of Suicide Ideation. Result: The major findings of the analysis are as follows: first, 11.5% of the soldiers were in the risk group for PTED, and 4% of them had PTED. Second, PTED in the soldiers was significantly associated with a number of variables such as their educational background, stress, depression, self-esteem, impulsiveness, and suicidal ideation, while it was not significantly associated with age. Third, through the hierarchical multiple regression analysis, it was found that academic background, stress, and depression had a statistically significant positive effect on the incidence of PTED in the soldiers.
In order to prevent and effectively intervene in PTED in soldiers, there is a need for interventional efforts focused on depression and stress related to negative life events.


Posttraumatic Embitterment Disorder; Stress; Depression; Self-Esteem; Impulsiveness; Suicidal Ideation; Soldiers


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