J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.  2022 Oct;33(4):113-121. 10.5765/jkacap.220019.

The Difference in the Quality of Life of Korean Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Between Before and After COVID-19

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Korea


This study aimed to compare the quality of life (QoL) of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) before and during coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and to examine how their QoL is affected by emotional and environmental factors during COVID-19.
Participants in the pre-COVID-19 (n=43) and COVID-19 (n=36) groups were recruited from the same university hospital. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 Child Self-report, the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), the PedsQL 4.0 Parent Proxy Report, and the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) were employed. Independent t-tests, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted.
Caregivers assessed the children’s QoL more negatively than the children themselves in both groups. Children with ADHD evaluated their physical function more negatively and anxiety was significantly higher in the COVID-19 group. In the COVID-19 group, the PedsQL child self-report was significantly predicted by the CPRS, the CDI, and environmental factors (i.e., relation to child and monthly household income).
Children with ADHD in the COVID-19 group had a numerically lower QoL and significantly higher anxiety. To improve QoL, it is important to deal with not only depression but also ADHD symptoms and environmental factors.


COVID-19; Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; Quality of life; Depression; Anxiety
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