Clin Orthop Surg.  2022 Sep;14(3):370-376. 10.4055/cios21050.

Comparison of Lower-Limb Alignment in Patients with Advanced Knee Osteoarthritis: EOS Biplanar Stereoradiography versus Conventional Scanography

  • 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea


Accurate measurement of the lower limb alignment is one of the most crucial factors in advanced knee osteoarthritis patients scheduled for surgery. Recently, EOS biplanar stereoradiography with three-dimensional reconstruction was developed. The purpose of this study was to compare radiographic parameters between conventional scanography and EOS in patients with advanced knee osteoarthritis who need surgical treatment.
A total of 52 consecutive patients (104 knees) with bilateral knee osteoarthritis of advanced stage (Kellgren-Lawrence [KL] grade 3 or 4) were retrospectively reviewed. We measured the hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA) on conventional scanograms. In EOS, we measured HKA, hip-knee-shaft angle, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle, and mechanical medial proximal tibial angle. To evaluate sagittal and axial plane alignment, knee flexion angle (KFA), and knee joint rotation (KJR) were also measured.
Ninety knees were KL grade 4, and 14 knees were grade 3. The average HKA was 10.14° ± 6.16° on conventional scanograms and 11.26° ± 6.21° in EOS. HKA was greater in EOS than on conventional scanograms, and the difference (1.12°; range, −1.07° to 3.22°) was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Significant correlations were observed on the difference in HKA and mechanical medial proximal tibial angle (r = –0.198, p = 0.044), KFA (r = 0.193, p = 0.049), and KJR (r = 0.290, p = 0.003). In multivariable linear regression analysis, the difference in HKA had significant relationship with KFA (β = 0.286, p = 0.003) and KJR (β = 0.363, p < 0.001).
HKA measured on conventional scanograms and in EOS differed significantly and the difference had a significant correlations with KFA, KJR, and medial proximal tibial angle. Surgeons can consider these results before orthopedic surgery in patients who have advanced knee osteoarthritis.


Knee osteoarthritis; Alignment; Biplanar steroradiography; Scanoram; Total knee arthroplasty
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