J Korean Soc Radiol.  2022 Jul;83(4):808-829. 10.3348/jksr.2021.0178.

Atypical Manifestation of Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Hepatic Malignancy Mimicking Lesions

  • 1Department of Radiology, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed noninvasively on multiphasic CT and MRI based on its distinctive imaging findings. These features include arterial phase hyperenhancement and washout on portal or delayed phase images. However, radiologists face significant diagnostic challenges because some HCCs exhibit atypical imaging characteristics. In addition to many HCC-mimicking lesions, such as arterioportal shunts, combined HCC-cholangiocarcinoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and hemangioma present a challenge for radiologists in actual clinical practice. The ability to distinguish HCCs from mimickers on initial imaging examinations is crucial for appropriate management and treatment decisions. Therefore, this pictorial review presents the imaging findings of atypical HCCs and HCCs mimicking malignant and benign lesions and discusses important clues that may help narrow down the differential diagnosis.


Liver Neoplasms; Carcinoma; Hepatocellular; Computed Tomography; X-Ray; Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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