J Prev Med Public Health.  2022 Jul;55(4):407-413. 10.3961/jpmph.22.150.

Analysis of a Targeted Intervention Programme on the Risk Behaviours of Injecting Drug Users in India: Evidence From the National Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance Survey

Affiliations
  • 1Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)-National Institute of Medical Statistics, New Delhi, India
  • 2Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), New Delhi, India
  • 3Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)-National Institute of Epidemiology, Chennai, India

Abstract


Objectives
This study provides insights on the impact of a targeted intervention (TI) programme on behaviour change among injecting drug users (IDUs) in India.
Methods
This paper examined the data from the Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance 2014-2015 for IDUs in India. Logistic regression was performed to understand the factors (TI programme services) that affected injecting risk behaviours by adjusting for covariates. Propensity score matching was conducted to understand the impact of the TI programme on using new needles/syringes and sharing needles/syringes in the most recent injecting episode by accounting for the covariates that predicted receiving the intervention.
Results
Participants who received new needles and syringes from peer educators or outreach workers were 1.3 times (adjusted odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.53) more likely to use new needles/syringes during most recent injecting episode than participants who did not receive needles/syringes. The matched-samples estimate (i.e., average treatment effect on treated) of using new needles in the most recent injecting episode showed a 2.8% (95% CI, 0.0 to 5.6) increase in the use of new needles and a 6.5% (95% CI, -9.7 to -3.3) decrease in needle sharing in the most recent injecting episode in participants who received new needles/syringes. There was a 2.2% (95% CI, -3.8 to -0.6) decrease in needle sharing in the most recent injecting episode among participants who were referred to other services (integrated counselling and testing centre, detox centres, etc.).
Conclusions
The TI programme proved to be effective for behaviour change among IDUs, as substantiated by the use of new needles/syringes and sharing of needles/syringes.

Keyword

Program evaluation; Injecting drug users; Propensity score matching; Average treatment effect; Targeted interventions
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