J Cardiovasc Imaging.  2022 Jul;30(3):185-196. 10.4250/jcvi.2022.0013.

Three-Dimensional Myocardial Strain for the Prediction of Clinical Events in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

  • 1Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea
  • 2Cardiovascular Center, Sejong General Hospital, Bucheon, Korea


Two-dimensional (2D) strain provides more predictive power than ejection fraction (EF) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). 3D strain and EF are also expected to have better clinical usefulness and overcome several inherent limitations of 2D strain. We aimed to clarify the prognostic significance of 3D strain analysis in patients with STEMI.
Patients who underwent successful revascularization for STEMI were retrospectively recruited. In addition to conventional parameters, 3D EF, global longitudinal strain (GLS), global area strain (GAS), as well as 2D GLS were obtained. We constructed a composite outcome consisting of all-cause death or re-hospitalization for acute heart failure or ventricular arrhythmia.
Of 632 STEMI patients, 545 patients (86.2%) had a reliable 3D strain analysis. During median follow-up of 49.5 months, 55 (10.1%) patients experienced the adverse outcome. Left ventricle EF, 2D GLS, 3D EF, 3D GLS, and 3D GAS were significantly associated with poor outcomes. (all, p < 0.001) The maximum likelihood-ratio test was performed to evaluate the additional prognostic value of 2D GLS or 3D GLS over the prognostic model consisting of clinical characteristics and EF, and the likelihood ratio was 15.9 for 2D GLS (p < 0.001) and 1.49 for 3D GLS (p = 0.22).
The predictive power of 3D strain was slightly lower than the 2D strain. Although we can obtain 3D strains, volume, and EF simultaneously in same cycle, the clinical implications of 3D strains in STEMI need to be investigated further.


ST elevation myocardial infarction; Prognosis; Echocardiography; three-dimensional
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