Int J Arrhythm.  2022 Jun;23(2):7. 10.1186/s42444-021-00059-3.

Sudden cardiac death in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: an updated review

Affiliations
  • 1Cardiovascular Center, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 1650 Taiwan Boulevard Sect. 4, Taichung 40705, Taiwan
  • 2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu and Taipei, Taiwan
  • 3Department of Data Science and Big Data Analytics, Providence University, Taichung, Taiwan
  • 4Department of Financial Engineering, Providence University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Abstract

Despite the advances in medical and device therapies for heart failure (HF), sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains a tremendous global burden in patients with HF. Among the risk factors for SCD, HF has the greatest impact. Previous studies focusing on patients with systolic dysfunction have found several predictive factors associated with SCD, lead‑ ing to the subsequent development of strategies of primary prevention, like placement of implantable cardioverterdefibrillator (ICD) in high-risk patients. Although patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) were less prone to SCD compared to patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), patients with HFpEF did account for a significant proportion of all HF patients who encountered SCD. The cutoff value of left ventricular ejection frac‑ tion (LVEF) to define the subset of HF did not reach consensus until 2016 when the European Society of Cardiology proposed a new classification system by LVEF. There is a great unmet need in the field of SCD in HFpEF regarding risk stratification and appropriate device therapy with ICD implantation. In this article, we will approach SCD in HFpEF from HFrEF subsets. We also aim at clarifying the mechanisms, risk factors, and prevention of SCD in HFpEF.

Keyword

Sudden cardiac death; Sudden arrhythmic death; Heart failure; Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF); Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF); Risk factors; Prevention
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