J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.  2022 Apr;33(2):27-34. 10.5765/jkacap.210034.

Stimulant Induced Movement Disorders in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Jeonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Korea
  • 2Department of Psychology, College of Public Human Resources, Dankook University, Cheonan, Korea
  • 3Department of Psychiatry, Jeonbuk National University College of Medicine, Jeonju, Korea


Stimulants, such as amphetamine and methylphenidate, are one of the most effective treatment modalities for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and may cause various movement disorders. This review discusses various movement disorders related to stimulant use in the treatment of ADHD. We reviewed the current knowledge on various movement disorders that may be related to the therapeutic use of stimulants in patients with ADHD. Recent findings suggest that the use of stimulants and the onset/aggravation of tics are more likely to be coincidental. In rare cases, stimulants may cause stereotypies, chorea, and dyskinesia, in addition to tics. Some epidemiological studies have suggested that stimulants used for the treatment of ADHD may cause Parkinson’s disease (PD) after adulthood. However, there is still a lack of evidence that the use of stimulants in patients with ADHD may cause PD, and related studies are only in the early stages. As stimulants are one of the most commonly used medications in children and adolescents, close observations and studies are necessary to assess the effects of stimulants on various movement disorders, including tic disorders and Parkinson’s disease.


Stimulant; Movement disorders; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Tics; Parkinson’s disease
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