World J Mens Health.  2022 Jul;40(3):412-424. 10.5534/wjmh.210139.

Evidence on Statins, Omega-3, and Prostate Cancer: A Narrative Review

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Urology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea
  • 2Department of Urology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Abstract

Dietary intake selections might play a crucial role in prostate cancer (PCa) occurrence and progression. Several studies have investigated whether statin use could reduce PCa risk but with conflicting results. Nevertheless, a significantly decreased incidence of advanced PCa has been consistently noted. Statins may also reduce the risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) in men with PCa after receiving active treatment. However, the influence of statin usage on BCR and PCa progression in men with high prostate-specific antigen levels has been found to be insignificant. In contrast, the combined use of a statin and metformin was significantly related to the survival status of PCa patients. However, some studies have revealed that the intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid (ω-3) from fish or fish oil supplements may elevate PCa risk. Several meta-analyses on ω-3 consumption and PCa have shown controversial results for the relationship between PCa and ω-3 consumption. However, studies with positive results for various genotypes, fatty acid intake or levels, and PCA risk are emerging. This review highlights the association among statins, ω-3, and PCa. The findings summarized here may be helpful for clinicians counseling patients related to PCa.

Keyword

Omega-3 fatty acid; Prostate cancer; Recurrence; Risk; Statin; Survival
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