J Bone Metab.  2022 Feb;29(1):23-33. 10.11005/jbm.2022.29.1.23.

Food Security Moderates the Relationships of Muscle Mass with Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance

  • 1Department of Family Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea


This study aimed to determine whether food security moderates the relationship of skeletal muscle mass with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance (IR).
This study analyzed the data of 10,680 adults using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. The food security reported by households, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) divided by body mass index (BMI) (ASM/BMI), weight (ASM/weight), or height squared (ASM/height2) as muscle mass indicators, MetS (defined as presence of at least 3 components of MetS), and IR (defined as sex-specific highest quintile of homeostatic model assessment for IR) were assessed. The association between the muscle mass indicators and food security as well as their interaction with MetS and IR was analyzed for all participants and each sex using complex sample logistic regression and general linear model analyses.
When the ASM/BMI increased by 0.1 kg/BMI, the odds for MetS and IR decreased by 36% and 29%, respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, education, economic level, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, chronic diseases, and intake of fats and protein. There was a significant interaction between ASM/BMI and food security in their relationship with MetS and its components. In the low food security group, the inverse relationship of ASM/BMI with MetS and IR was stronger than in the food security group. These findings were more pronounced in men than in women, and similar findings were observed in the association with ASM/weight.
The associations of skeletal muscle mass with MetS and IR may be influenced by household food security in Korean adults.


Food security; Insulin resistance; Metabolic syndrome; Muscle; skeletal
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