Electrolyte Blood Press.  2021 Dec;19(2):51-55. 10.5049/EBP.2021.19.2.51.

A Case Report of Very Severe Hyperphosphatemia (19.3 mg/dL) in a Uremic Patient Taking Honey and Persimmon Vinegar

  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea


We report a case of severe hyperphosphatemia in advanced CKD with poor compliance. A 55-year-old male patient with underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease presented emergently with general weakness and altered mental status. The creatinine level was 14 mg/dL (normal range: 0.5-1.3 mg/dL) 2 months prior to consultation, and he was advised initiation of hemodialysis, which he refused. Subsequently, the patient stopped taking all prescribed medications and self-medicated with honey and persimmon vinegar with the false belief it was detoxifying. At the time of admission, he was delirious, and his laboratory results showed blood urea nitrogen level of 183.4 mg/dL (8-23 mg/dL), serum creatinine level of 26.61 mg/dL (0.5-1.3 mg/dL), serum phosphate level of 19.3 mg/dL (2.5-5.5 mg/dL), total calcium level of 4.3 mg/dL (8.4-10.2 mg/dL), vitamin D (25(OH)D) level of 5.71 ng/mL (30-100 ng/mL) and parathyroid hormone level of 401 pg/ml (9-55 pg/mL). Brain computed tomography revealed non-traumatic spontaneous subdural hemorrhage, presumably due to uremic bleeding.Emergent hemodialysis was initiated, and hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia were rectified; calcium acetate and cholecalciferol were administered. The patient’s general condition and laboratory results improved following dialysis. Strict dietary restrictions with patient education were implemented. Multifaceted interventions, including dietary counseling, administration of phosphate-lowering drugs, and lifestyle modifications, should be implemented when encountering patients with CKD, considering the extent of the patient’s adherence.


Hyperphosphatemia; Chronic kidney disease; Dietary counseling; Case report
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