Electrolyte Blood Press.  2021 Dec;19(2):19-28. 10.5049/EBP.2021.19.2.19.

Hypertension Management in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in the Post-SPRINT Era

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Medicine, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea

Abstract

The management of high blood pressure (BP) is crucial for improving outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The updated Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2021 BP guideline proposes treating adults with CKD to a target systolic BP (SBP) of <120 mmHg based on the standardized office BP measurement.This suggestion is largely based on the finding of SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) that targeting an SBP of <120 mmHg versus <140 mmHg is beneficial for cardiovascular and mortality outcomes, regardless of the patient’s kidney disease status. However, extended follow-up studies of CKD trials showed that intensive versus usual BP control was associated with a lower risk of kidney failure in patients with, but not in those without, proteinuria. Similarly, a recent population-based study in Korea demonstrated that the optimal on-treatment BP for composite cardiorenal and mortality outcomes was left-shifted in adults with CKD, particularly in those with albuminuria, relative to that in patients without CKD. Moreover, in meta-analyses of randomized trials, more intensive versus standard BP control was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality in patients with CKD and albuminuria but not in those without CKD. Meanwhile, a 2020 Cochrane review reported that lower BP targets (≤135/85 mmHg), compared with standard targets (≤140/90 mmHg), resulted in a small reduction in cardiovascular events, an increase in other serious adverse events, and no reduction in total serious adverse events. Lowering SBP to <120 mmHg can potentially increase the risk of treatment-related adverse events beyond the cardioprotective benefits, and standardized BP measurement increases the burden on patients and resources.Thus, targeting a BP of <130/80 mmHg with appropriate office BP measurement can be an option in patients with CKD. The presence of albuminuria would need to be additionally considered to determine individualized BP targets.

Keyword

Antihypertensive agents; Antihypertensive agents; Chronic kidney disease; Practice guideline
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