Endocrinol Metab.  2021 Dec;36(6):1254-1267. 10.3803/EnM.2021.1249.

Association between Lung Function and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in Healthy Individuals after a 6-Year Follow-up

Affiliations
  • 1Division of Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Health Promotion Center, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
  • 4College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul, Korea
  • 5Department of Medical Informatics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea

Abstract

Background
We analyzed hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and various lung function test results in healthy individuals after a 6-year follow-up period to explore the influence of lung function changes on glycemic control.
Methods
Subjects whose HbA1c levels did not qualify as diabetes mellitus (DM) and who had at least two consecutive lung function tests were selected among the people who visited a health promotion center. Lung function parameters, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow 25% to 75% (FEF25%−75%), were divided into four groups based on their baseline quantiles. To evaluate future DM onset risk in relation to lung function changes, the correlation between baseline HbA1c levels and changes in lung function parameters after a 6-year follow-up period was analyzed.
Results
Overall, 17,568 individuals were included; 0.9% of the subjects were diagnosed with DM. The individuals included in the quartile with FEV1/FVC ratio values of 78% to 82% had lower risk of DM than those in the quartile with FEV1/FVC ratio values of ≥86% after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index (P=0.04). Baseline percent predicted FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and FEF25%−75%, and differences in the FEV1/FVC ratio or FEF25%−75%, showed negative linear correlations with baseline HbA1c levels.
Conclusion
Healthy subjects with FEV1/FVC ratio values between 78% and 82% had 40% lower risk for future DM. Smaller differences and lower baseline FEV1/FVC ratio or FEF25%−75% values were associated with higher baseline HbA1c levels. These findings suggest that airflow limitation affects systemic glucose control and that the FEV1/FVC ratio could be one of the factors predicting future DM risk in healthy individuals.

Keyword

Diabetes mellitus; Airway obstruction; Respiratory function tests
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