Endocrinol Metab.  2021 Oct;36(5):938-951. 10.3803/EnM.2021.501.

T4+T3 Combination Therapy: An Unsolved Problem of Increasing Magnitude and Complexity

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Endocrinology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Abstract

Thyroxine (T4)+triiodothyronine (T3) combination therapy can be considered in case of persistent symptoms despite normal serum thyroid stimulating hormone in levothyroxine (LT4)-treated hypothyroid patients. Combination therapy has gained popularity in the last two decades, especially in countries with a relatively high gross domestic product. The prevalence of persistent symptoms has also increased; most frequent are complaints about energy levels and fatigue (80% to 90%), weight management (70% to 75%), memory (60% to 80%), and mood (40% to 50%). Pathophysiological explanations for persistent problems are unrealistic patient expectations, comorbidities, somatic symptoms, related disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [DSM-5]), autoimmune neuroinflammation, and low tissue T3. There is fair circumstantial evidence for the latter cause (tissue and specifically brain T3 content is normalized by T4+T3, not by T4 alone), but the other causes are viewed as more relevant in current practice. This might be related to the ‘hype’ that has emerged surrounding T4+T3 therapy. Although more and better-designed trials are needed to validate the efficacy of T4+T3 combination, the management of persistent symptoms should also be directed towards alternative causes. Improving the doctor-patient relationship and including more and better information is crucial. For example, dissatisfaction with the outcomes of T4 treatment for subclinical hypothyroidism can be anticipated as recent trials have demonstrated that LT4 is hardly effective in improving symptoms associated with subclinical hypothyroidism.

Keyword

Hypothyroidsm; T4 monotherapy; T4+T3 combination therapy; Prevalence; Persistent symptoms; Pathophysiology; Management

Figure

  • Fig. 1 Relationship between the proportion of respondents willing to use thyroxine (T4)+triiodothyronine (T3) combination therapy in five European countries in patients with persistent symptoms despite a normal thyroid stimulating hormone on levothyroxine, and their annual per capita gross domestic product (GDP) in 2019 given as percentage of the world’s average. BG, Bulgaria [37]; RO, Romania [35]; PL, Poland [36]; IT, Italy [33]; DK, Denmark [34].


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