Korean J Dent Mater.  2021 Sep;48(3):159-174. 10.14815/kjdm.2021.48.3.159.

Osteoblast cytocompatibility and antibacterial effect of ginger main compounds

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Dental Biomaterials and Institute of Biodegradable Materials, Institute of Oral Bioscience, School of Dentistry, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, Republic of Korea

Abstract

Ginger has been used worldwide in traditional medicine. It has been reported that phenolic compounds such as gingerol and shogaol in ginger have beneficial cellular effect and antibacterial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gingerol and shogaol on the cytocompatibility for the osteoblastic cells and antibacterial activity against oral microorganisms. Chemical structures of gingerol and shogaol were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). Thermal and pH stability was analyzed by UPLC assay. Streptococcus mutans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis were used to confirm the antibacterial effect of the ginger compounds and MC3T3-E1 cells were used to identify biocompatibility test. Cell viability and bacterial growth was determined by water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-8) colorimetric assay. Cellular morphology was identified with optical microscope after crystal violet staining. Cell differentiation and oxidative stress were evaluated by Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and hydrogen peroxide colorimetric assay. The chemical bonding related with hydroxyl groups, carbonyl groups and aromatic ring was identified in all ginger compounds. Gingerol and shogaol presented good stability at acid and neutral pH at room temperature. All compounds showed better antibacterial effect against Porphyromonas gingivalis than Streptococcus mutans. 10-gingerol and all shogaol groups below 10-6 M presented suitable cytocompatibility for osteoblastic cells compared to control group. All groups showed similar Oxidative stress to control group, and ALP activity in all groups below 10-6 M was not statistically significant compared to control. Hence, this study concludes that shogaol groups presented better antibacterial effect and suitable cytocompatibility than gingerol groups.

Keyword

Ginger extract; Gingerol; Shogaol; Antibacterial activity; Cytocompatibility
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