J Korean Acad Pediatr Dent.  2021 Aug;48(3):245-254. 10.5933/JKAPD.2021.48.3.245.

Accuracy of Automatic Cephalometric Analysis Programs on Lateral Cephalograms of Preadolescent Children

  • 1Department of Pediatric Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University
  • 2Oral Science Research Center, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University


The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of 3 different automatic landmark identification programs on lateral cephalgrams and the clinical acceptability in pediatric dentistry.
Sixty digital cephalometric radiographs of 7 to 12 years old healthy children were randomly selected. Fourteen landmarks were chosen for assessment and the mean of 3 measurements of each landmark by a single examiner was defined as the baseline landmarks. The mean difference between an automatically identified landmark and the baseline landmark was measured for each landmark on each image.
The total mean difference of 3 automatic programs compared to the baseline landmarks were 2.53 ± 1.63 mm. Errors among 3 programs were not significantly different for 12 of 14 landmarks except Orbitale and Gonion. The automatic landmark identification programs showed significant higher mean detection errors than the manual method. The programs couldn’t be used as the 1st tool to replace human examiners. But considering short consuming time, these results indicate that all 3 programs have sufficient validity to be used in pediatric dental clinic.

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