J Korean Neurosurg Soc.  2021 Sep;64(5):818-826. 10.3340/jkns.2020.0345.

First line Treatment of Traumatic Carotid Cavernous Fistulas Using Covered Stents at Level 1 Regional Trauma Center

  • 1Department of Neurosurgery and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan, Korea


: The widely accepted treatment option of a traumatic carotid cavernous fistula (TCCF) has been detachable balloon or coils based fistula occlusion. Recently, covered stent implantation has been proving an excellent results. The purpose of this study is to investigate our experiences with first line choice of covered stent implantation for TCCF at level 1 regional trauma center.
: From November 2004 to February 2020, 19 covered stents were used for treatment of 19 TCCF patients. Among them, 15 cases were first line treatment using covered stents. Clinical and angiographic data were retrospectively reviewed.
: Procedures were technically successful in all 15 cases (100%). Immediate angiographic results after procedure were total occlusion in 12 patients (80%). All patients except two expired patients had image follow-up (mean 15 months). Recurred symptomatic three patients underwent additional treatments and achieved complete occlusion. Mean clinical follow-up duration was 32 months and results were modified Rankin Scale 1–2 in five, 3–4 in five, and 5 in three patients.
: The covered stent could be considered as fist line treatment option for treating TCCF patients especially in unstable vital sign. Larger samples and expanded follow-up are required to further develop their specifications and indications.


Traumatic carotid cavernous sinus fistula; Covered stent; Treatment
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