Tissue Eng Regen Med.  2021 Aug;18(4):561-571. 10.1007/s13770-021-00367-8.

The Antioxidant Effect of Small Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Aloe vera Peels for Wound Healing

  • 1Exostemtech Inc., Education Research Industry Collaboration Complex (ERICC), Hanyang University, 55 Hanyangdaehakro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan 15588, Republic of Korea
  • 2Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 55 Hanyangdaehak-ro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan 15588, Republic of Korea


Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from plants have emerged as potential candidates for cosmetic and therapeutic applications. In this study, we isolated EVs from Aloe vera peels (A-EVs) and investigated the antioxidant and wound healing potential of A-EVs.
A-EVs were isolated by ultracentrifugation and tangential flow filtration and were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis. The cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of A-EVs were investigated by WST-1 assay and flow cytometry. The antioxidant effect of A-EVs was evaluated by superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity assay and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay. The wound healing potential was assessed by in vitro scratch assay using human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and fibroblasts (HDF). The expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) and their associated genes was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR.
A-EVs displayed a round shape and had diameters from 50 to 200 nm. A-EVs showed good cytocompatibility on human skin cells and were internalized into HaCaT cells via clathrin-, caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and membrane fusion. The SOD activity and CAA assays exhibited that A-EVs had antioxidant activity and reduced intracellular ROS levels in H2O2-treated HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner. A scratch assay showed that A-EVs enhanced the migration ability of HaCaT and HDF. Moreover, A-EVs significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO-1, CAT, and SOD genes in H2O2-treated HaCaT cells. Our findings reveal that A-EVs could activate the antioxidant defense mechanisms and wound healing process via the Nrf2 activation.
Overall results suggest that the A-EVs are promising as a potential agent for skin regeneration.


Extracellular vesicles; Aloe vera; Reactive oxygen species; Antioxidants; Wound healing
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