J Korean Orthop Assoc.  2021 Aug;56(4):317-325. 10.4055/jkoa.2021.56.4.317.

Treatment of Distal Tibial Spiral Fractures Combined with Posterior Malleolar Fractures

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Gyeongju, Korea

Abstract

Purpose
This study compared the functional and radiologic outcomes of intramedullary nailing (IMN) and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for tibia fractures in distal tibial spiral fractures combined with posterior malleolar fractures, as well as the functional and radiologic outcomes with and without fixation for posterior malleolar fractures.
Materials and Methods
From January 2010 to December 2018 the radiological and clinical outcomes of 30 skeletally mature patients with tibial spiral fractures (AO Foundation/Orthopaedic Trauma Association classification 42-A1, B1, C1) combined with posterior malleolar fractures were analyzed. Sixteen patients were treated with IMN, and 14 patients were treated with MIPO. Depending on the surgical methods, the radiologic and clinical outcomes were compared by evaluating the bone union time, postoperative alignment, postoperative displacement of the posterior malleolar fragment, and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. Moreover, the functional and clinical outcomes with and without fixation for posterior malleolar fractures were compared.
Results
The mean bone union time was 21.8 weeks in the IMN group and 23.1 weeks in the MIPO group (p=0.500). At the final follow up, the mean alignment was coronal angulation of 1.8°, sagittal angulation of 1.6° in the IMN group and coronal angulation of 1.2° and sagittal angulation of 1.7° in the MIPO group (conoral angulation: p=0.131, sagittal angulation: p=0.850). The postoperative and final radiologic evaluation showed no displacement of the posterior malleolar fragment and excellent joint congruity in all cases. At the final follow-up, the mean AOFAS score was 88.0 on average in the IMN group and 87.6 on average in the MIPO group (p=0.905). The ankle range of motion and AOFAS score were similar in the fixation group and no fixation group for posterior malleolar fractures.
Conclusion
Both IMN and MIPO for tibial spiral fractures combined with posterior malleolar fractures result in satisfactory radiological and clinical outcomes.

Keyword

tibia; distal spiral fracture; posterior malleolar fracture; intramedullary nailing; minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis
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