Korean J Radiol.  2021 Aug;22(8):1279-1288. 10.3348/kjr.2020.1159.

LI-RADS Version 2018 Treatment Response Algorithm: Diagnostic Performance after Transarterial Radioembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Abstract


Objective
To assess the diagnostic performance of the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) version 2018 treatment response algorithm (TRA) for the evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transarterial radioembolization.
Materials and Methods
This retrospective study included patients who underwent transarterial radioembolization for HCC followed by hepatic surgery between January 2011 and December 2019. The resected lesions were determined to have either complete (100%) or incomplete (< 100%) necrosis based on histopathology. Three radiologists independently reviewed the CT or MR images of pre- and post-treatment lesions and assigned categories based on the LI-RADS version 2018 and the TRA, respectively. Diagnostic performances of LI-RADS treatment response (LR-TR) viable and nonviable categories were assessed for each reader, using histopathology from hepatic surgeries as a reference standard. Inter-reader agreements were evaluated using Fleiss κ.
Results
A total of 27 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 55.9 ± 9.1 years; 24 male) with 34 lesions (15 with complete necrosis and 19 with incomplete necrosis on histopathology) were included. To predict complete necrosis, the LR-TR nonviable category had a sensitivity of 73.3–80.0% and a specificity of 78.9–89.5%. For predicting incomplete necrosis, the LR-TR viable category had a sensitivity of 73.7–79.0% and a specificity of 93.3–100%. Five (14.7%) of 34 treated lesions were categorized as LR-TR equivocal by consensus, with two of the five lesions demonstrating incomplete necrosis. Interreader agreement for the LR-TR category was 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.66–0.96).
Conclusion
The LI-RADS version 2018 TRA can be used to predict the histopathologic viability of HCCs treated with transarterial radioembolization.

Keyword

Liver neoplasms; Posttreatment imaging; Response; Radioembolization; Sensitivity and specificity
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