J Pathol Transl Med.  2021 Jul;55(4):239-246. 10.4132/jptm.2021.04.20.

Distinctive morphological and molecular features of urothelial carcinoma with an inverted growth pattern

Affiliations
  • 1Pathology Unit, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy
  • 2Urology Unit, University of Foggia, Bonomo Teaching Hospital, Foggia, Italy
  • 3Urology and Renal Transplantation Unit, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy
  • 4Pathology Unit, Azienda USL-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy
  • 5Surgical Oncology Unit, Azienda USL-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy
  • 6Clinical and Experimental Medicine PhD Program, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
  • 7Pathology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera S. Maria di Terni, University of Perugia, Terni, Italy

Abstract

Urothelial carcinoma with an inverted growth pattern (UC-IGP) is a peculiar entity within the spectrum of urothelial lesions. While efforts have been made over the last few decades to unravel its carcinogenesis and relationship with conventional urothelial carcinoma, the exact classification of inverted urothelial lesions is a matter of debate. The morphological features of UC-IGP pose several issues in differential diagnosis with other mostly benign lesions. Various techniques, including immunohistochemistry, UroVysion, and many molecular methods, have been employed to study the exact nature of this lesion. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the morphological and immunophenotypical aspects of UC-IGP. Moreover, we present and discuss the immunohistochemical and molecular markers involved in diagnosis and prognosis of UC-IGP lesions.

Keyword

Urothelial carcinoma; Inverted growth pattern; Immunohistochemistry; Molecular markers
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