J Korean Med Sci.  2021 Jun;36(25):e173. 10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e173.

Analysis of Characteristics and Mortality in Cardiac Arrest Patients by Hospital Level: a Nationwide Population-based Study

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu, Korea

Abstract

Background
Survival and post-cardiac arrest care vary considerably by hospital, region, and country. In the current study, we aimed to analyze mortality in patients who underwent cardiac arrest by hospital level, and to reveal differences in patient characteristics and hospital factors, including post-cardiac arrest care, hospital costs, and adherence to changes in resuscitation guidelines.
Methods
We enrolled adult patients (≥ 20 years) who suffered non-traumatic cardiac arrest from 2006 to 2015. Patient demographics, insurance type, admission route, comorbidities, treatments, and hospital costs were extracted from the National Health Insurance Service database. We categorized patients into tertiary hospital, general hospital, and hospital groups according to the level of the hospital where they were treated. We analyzed the patients' characteristics, hospital factors, and mortalities among the three groups. We also analyzed post-cardiac arrest care before and after the 2010 guideline changes. The primary end-point was 30 days and 1 year mortality rates.
Results
The tertiary hospital, general hospital, and hospital groups represented 32.6%, 49.6%, and 17.8% of 337,042 patients, respectively. The tertiary and general hospital groups were younger, had a lower proportion of medical aid coverage, and fewer comorbidities, compared to the hospital group. Post-cardiac arrest care, such as percutaneous coronary intervention, targeted temperature management, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, were provided more frequently in the tertiary and general hospital groups. After adjusting for age, sex, insurance type, urbanization level, admission route, comorbidities, defibrillation, resuscitation medications, angiography, and guideline changes, the tertiary and general hospital groups showed lower 1-year mortality (tertiary hospital vs. general hospital vs. hospital, adjusted odds ratios, 0.538 vs. 0.604 vs. 1; P < 0.001). After 2010 guideline changes, a marked decline in atropine use and an increase in post-cardiac arrest care were observed in the tertiary and general hospital groups.
Conclusion
The tertiary and general hospital groups showed lower 30 days and 1 year mortality rates than the hospital group, after adjusting for patient characteristics and hospital factors. Higher-level hospitals provided more post-cardiac arrest care, which led to high hospital costs, and showed good adherence to the guideline change after 2010.

Keyword

Cardiac Arrest; Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; Hospital Level; Mortality; Hospital Cost; Guideline
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